The Republic of Biafra
This section addresses the basic events of the secessionist period in Nigeria. The primary sources presented here are almost exclusively items that were published or stated during the 1966-1970 period. This evidence includes speeches of leaders, government pronouncements, newspaper accounts and international reactions. This section also provides guidance in terms of maps and concludes with different theories of why these events occurred. As you read through these items, keep notes not just on what is going on but also write down questions and theories that have formed in your own mind as well as issues or terms you wish could be more fully defined. In many cases, your classmates will have this information because it appeared in their readings.
Orientation to Biafra and Nigeria
All historians need to orient themselves to the setting in which the events they are studying are embedded.
1) Because the events are essentially unfamiliar to people today, you should first review a Timeline of the events of the civil war itself from first coup to final defeat of the secessionists.
Then check some maps to become familiar with the location of the events including:
3) Economic issues often play a role in these events. The data on petroleum shows that the Nigerian government gains a lot of revenue from the sale of oil, even back into the 1950s.
4) Especially critical for Nigeria is an understanding of the ethnic make-up of the country. In addition to the map on ethnic diversity look at this date on the ethnolinguistic diversity of Nigeria today.
5. Countries issue money and new countries, even in the midst of civil war, attempt to issue currency. Notice the images on Biafran money attached to this page about the Biafran flag; what do these images say about Biafra?
6) You can also look at the words for the national anthem of Biafra, written by Nnamdi Azikiwe.
7) Recent statement by Col. Ojukwu on Biafra (requires audio capability) http://ftp.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/mycentury/audio/wk03d3.ram
A question and a reminder. Is the past really past? Does the Biafra conflict continue to echo in today's political debates in Nigeria? The answer is "yes." Read this grouping of three letters to the editor of USAfrica Online which ask if Nigerians need to continue to apologize to the Igbo for the treatment they received during secession.
What Were the Issues in This Civil War?
The first information people usually receive about an international flare-up comes from the participants themselves who seek to frame the issues in the way they see them while undercutting the claims of their opponents. The material here introduces Biafra in precisely this way. The following statements were issued in the midst of the conflict and represent different points of view from the actors themselves. It is important to remember that these statements were also crafted to win support or sympathy from outside the country.
Biafran Goals The best statement of Biafran goals comes from the nation's own Declaration of Independence.
Nigerian Goals When the secession movement ended, the leader of the victorious Nigerian government stated his views of the issues in a radio speech in January, 1970.
Global Concerns. The global interest in Biafra was related to the pictures of human misery within Biafra. Secession was supported by some people because of ideals of national self determination and because of human rights (in the sense that people shouldn't be treated this way). On the other hand there were extensive fears that if any people who want it can secede into their own independent state, then won't we see a collapse of world order followed by the rise of chaos accompanying the scramble to create numerous independent, micro-states?
Causation. Chinua Achebe served as a voice for Biafra outside of Nigeria. This paper, first presented in 1968 in Uganda, addresses the larger issues which he felt were behind the civil war in Nigeria.
Compare the principles and stories told by all of the different documents you have looked at, either individually or as a group, for Biafra. What things can you say you feel certain did occur because everyone seems to agree in their statements? What things are mentioned by only some or even one of the participants? Are their any issues that seem left out? How do these findings match up statements about the causes of the secession movement?