Background Readings

This is not a comprehensive bibliography of sources for Nigerian history and the civil war. Rather this is a list of the sources I found useful in working through the issues in this project.

Major sources

A. H. M. Kirk-Greene, Crisis and Conflict in Nigeria A Documentary Sourcebook 1966-1968 (Oxford University Press, 1971)

John J. Stremlau, The International Politics of the Nigerian Civil War 1967-1970 (Princeton, 1977)


Eghosa E. Osaghae, Crippled Giant Nigeria Since Independence (University of Indiana Press, 1998)

Dan Jacobs, The Brutality of Nations (Knopf, 1987)


Ntieyong U. Akpan, The Struggle for Secession, 1966-1970 A Personal Account of the Nigerian Civil War (Frank Cass, 1972)

Arthur Agwuncha Nwankwo and Samuel Odochukwu Ifegik, Biafra The Making of a Nation (New York, 1970)


Larry Diamond, Class, Ethnicity and Democracy in Nigeria The Failure of the First Republic (Syracuse University Press, 1988)

Colonial Era Issues

John Kent, The Internationalization of Colonialism Britain, France and Black Africa, 1939-1956 (Oxford, 1992)

African responses—manifestos

J. Ayodele Langley, Pan-Africanism and Nationalism in West Africa 1900-1945 (Oxford, 1973)


Robert W. July, The Origins of Modern African Thought Its Development in West Africa during the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (London, 1968)

Igbo on eve of Euro arrival

Elizabeth Isichei, The Igbo People and the Europeans The Genesis of a Relationship to 1906 (New York, 1973)