Annotated List of Primary Sources

Images of Power is expanding to a collection of thirteen images:

  1. Rhinoceros, wounded man, and disemboweled bison
    c. 15,000-13,000 BC
    A prehistoric cave painting from Lascaux, France.
  2. Statuettes from the Temple of Abu
    c. 2700-2600 BC
    A group of marble temple statues from Sumer illustrating religious beliefs as well as status in ancient Mesopotamia.
  3. Standard of Ur
    c. 2700 BC
    Two inlaid scenes from Sumer illustrating status and warfare in ancient Mesopotamia.
  4. Victory Stele of Naram-Sin
    c. 2200 BC
    An Akkadian monument erected to commemorate the Mesopotamian king's defeat of his enemies and his relationship with the gods.
  5. Stele with law code of Hammurabi
    c. 1780 BC
    The famous laws of the Babylonian king.
  6. Palette of King Narmer
    3100-3000 BC
    A ceremonial relief depicting the early Egyptian king's unification of Egypt as well as his relationship with the gods.
  7. Khafre
    c. 2575-2525 BC
    Statue of the Old Kingdom Egyptian king whose portrait is also portrayed on the Sphinx. Khafre's idealized statue depicts his godlike status.
  8. Temple of Ramses II
    c. 1275-1225 BC
    The four huge statues on the face of Ramses' temple were intended to intimidate any foreigners attempting to descend the Nile from the south.
  9. Akhenaton
    c. 1355-1335 BC
    Although startling realistic when compared to other pharaohs' portraits, the New Kingdom heretic king nevertheless appears with all of the traditional accoutrements of divine royalty.
  10. Denarius with portrait of Julius Caesar
    44 BC
    A prime example of coinage as propaganda
  11. Portrait of Augustus as general
    c. 20 BC
    A typical official imperial Roman portrait.
  12. Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius
    c. 175 AD
    A variation on the Roman imperial portrait.
  13. Christ as the Good Shepherd
    c. 425 AD
    One of the earliest formal "portraits" of Christ heavily influenced by the politics of the day.

Two of the most widely used and respected general art history surveys:

H.W. Janson, History of Art (New York, 1999).

Richard G. Tansey and Fred S. Kleiner, Gardner's Art Through the Ages (Fort Worth, 1999).