Published Date

May 1, 2004

This resource was developed in 2004 as part of “The Conquest of Mexico” by Nancy Fitch.

: Columbus lands on an island, what is probably now called the Dominican Republic

1502: Moctezuma II becomes tlatoani, ruler of Tenochtitlan and a vast empire in Mexico

1511–14: Spaniards conquer Cuba and establish base there

1517: First Spanish expedition to explore Mexico, Mexicas observe omens of doom

1518: Juan de Grijalva explores Yucatán

February 10, 1519: Defying Governor Velásquez’s orders, Cortés Leaves Cuba to conquer Mexico

June 3, 1519: Spaniards arrive at Cempoala

September 2–20, 1519: Spaniards fight with Tlaxcalans but end by winning Tlaxcalan allies

October 1519: Massacre at Cholula

November 8, 1519: Spaniards peacefully enter Tenochtitlan

November 14, 1519: Cortés puts Moctezuma under house arrest

May 1520: Cortés leaves Tenochtitlan to fight army brought by Panfílo de Narváez

May 1520: Pedro de Alvarado and other Spaniards massacre people at Tóxcatl festival

June 24, 1520: Cortés returns to Tenochtitlan

June 1529: Cuitlahuac chosen as tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan

June 1520: Moctezuma killed

June 30, 1520: La noche triste, The Night of Sorrows, Spaniards suffer heavy losses leaving Tenochtitlan

July 1520: Spaniards reach Tlaxcala and are welcomed

October 1520: Plague ravages Tenochtitlan

December 1520: Cuitlahuac dies from smallpox

February 1521: Cuahtémoc becomes tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan

May 1521: Spaniards besiege Tenochtitlan

May 1521: Spaniards cut off water to the city

June 1521: Spaniards attempt to enter city

July 1521: Spaniards decide to destroy city

August 7, 1521: Pedro de Alvarado suffers heavy losses trying to take marketplace of Tlatelolco

August 13, 1521: Cuautémoc imprisoned; battle for Tenochtitlan is over