Warm thanks to Peter Stallybrass, who introduced me to Pastorius and encouraged my interest in him with great generosity; to Brooke Palmieri and Andrew Thomas for sharing their unpublished work and for their expert advice; to Ann Blair, Natalie Zemon Davis, Laurie Nussdorfer, Nancy Siraisi, Jacob Soll, and Bethany Wiggin for comments and criticism; and to the staffs of the Rare Book and Manuscript Library of the University of Pennsylvania; the Library Company of Philadelphia; the library of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania; the Bodleian Library, Oxford; the British Library; the Department of Special Collections, Princeton University Library; and the Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbüttel. An earlier version of this article was presented as a paper at “The Industrious Bee: Francis Daniel Pastorius, His Manuscripts, and His World,” a conference sponsored by the McNeil Center for Early American Studies and the University of Pennsylvania Libraries, October 23–24, 2009.

1 On Pastorius (1651–1719), the standard study is still Marion Dexter Learned, The Life of Francis Daniel Pastorius, the Founder of Germantown (Philadelphia, 1908). See also Marian Wokeck, “Pastorius, Francis Daniel,” American National Biography Online,; Christoph Schweitzer, “Introduction,” in Francis Daniel Pastorius, Deliciae Hortenses; or, Garden-Recreations and Voluptates apianae, ed. Schweitzer (Camden, S.C., 1982), 1–6; and Margo M. Lambert, “Francis Daniel Pastorius: An American in Early Pennsylvania, 1683–1719/20” (Ph.D. diss., Georgetown University, 2007).

2 Georg Horn, De originibus americanis libri quatuor (The Hague, 1652); Horn, Dissertatio de vera aetate mundi (Leiden, 1659); Horn, Arca Noæ (Leiden, 1666); Horn, Orbis politicus (Zwickau, 1667); Horn, Orbis imperans (Leiden, 1668).

3 Georg Horn, Arca Mosis, sive Historia mundi (Leiden, 1669), Library Company of Philadelphia [hereafter LCP], Rare | Am 1668 Hor Log 798.D.

4 Virgil, Eclogues 3.33–34.

5 Robert Darnton, The Great Cat Massacre and Other Episodes in French Cultural History (New York, 1984), makes this point explicitly. Carlo Ginzburg gives marvelous demonstrations of how to turn the strangest of sayings and actions into history in The Night Battles: Witchcraft and Agrarian Cults in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, trans. John and Anne C. Tedeschi (Baltimore, 1983), and The Cheese and the Worms: The Cosmos of a Sixteenth-Century Miller, trans. John and Anne Tedeschi (Baltimore, 1980).

6 Pamela H. Smith and Paula Findlen, eds., Merchants and Marvels: Commerce, Science, and Art in Early Modern Europe (New York, 2002); Daniela Bleichmar, Paula De Vos, Kristin Huffine, and Kevin Sheehan, eds., Science in the Spanish and Portuguese Empires, 1500–1800 (Stanford, Calif., 2009); Daniela Bleichmar and Peter C. Mancall, eds., Collecting across Cultures: Material Exchanges in the Early Modern Atlantic World (Philadelphia, 2011); Daniela Bleichmar, Visible Empire: Botanical Expeditions and Visual Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Hispanic World (Chicago, 2011); Harold J. Cook, Matters of Exchange: Commerce, Medicine, and Science in the Dutch Golden Age (New Haven, Conn., 2007); Florence C. Hsia, Sojourners in a Strange Land: Jesuits and Their Scientific Missions in Late Imperial China (Chicago, 2009); Neil Safier, Measuring the New World: Enlightenment Science and South America (Chicago, 2008).

7 Rüdiger Mack, “Franz Daniel Pastorius: Sein Einsatz für die Quäker,” Pietismus und Neuzeit 15 (1989): 132–171, here 140. Pastorius also inscribed similar sentiments in Latin and English above his table, on the chest that held his manuscripts, and on doors and windows. See Learned’s extracts from the Bee-Hive in Marion Dexter Learned, “From Pastorius’ Bee-Hive or Bee-Stock,” Americana Germanica 1, no. 4 (1897): 104–106.

8 Mack, “Franz Daniel Pastorius,” 140. According to Beatrice Pastorius Turner, “William Penn and Pastorius,” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 57, no. 1 (1933): 66–90, Penn laughed only once.

9 Alfred L. Brophy, “ ‘Ingenium est Fateri per quos profeceris’: Francis Daniel Pastorius’ Young Country Clerk’s Collection and Anglo-American Legal Literature, 1682–1716,” University of Chicago Law School Roundtable 3, no. 2 (1996): 637–742. See more generally J. M. Duffin, ed., Acta Germanopolis: Records of the Corporation of Germantown, Pennsylvania, 1691–1707 (Philadelphia, 2008).

10 Alfred Brophy, “The Quaker Bibliographic World of Francis Daniel Pastorius’s Bee Hive,”Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 122, no. 3 (1998): 241–291.

11 Walter W. Woodward, Prospero’s America: John Winthrop, Jr., Alchemy, and the Creation of New England Culture, 1606–1676 (Chapel Hill, N.C., 2010).

12 Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of Pennsylvania [hereafter UPL], MS Codex 726, “The Bee-Hive” (two vols. in three). See also UPL, MS Codex 89, “The Young Country Clerk’s Collection”; Historical Society of Pennsylvania [hereafter HSP], Pastorius Collection, MS Am 475, “Alvearalia,” “Res Propriae,” and “Talia Qualia.” Excerpts from the Bee-Hive have been printed in Marion Dexter Learned, “From Pastorius’ Bee-Hive or Bee-Stock,” Americana Germanica 1, no. 4 (1897): 67–110; 2, no. 1 (1898): 33–42; 2, no. 2 (1898): 59–70; 2, no. 4 (1899): 65–79; and Marc Shell and Werner Sollors, eds.,The Multilingual Anthology of American Literature: A Reader of Original Texts with English Translations (New York, 2000), 12–41.

13 Brophy’s work is cited below. See Patrick M. Erben, “Promoting Pennsylvania: Penn, Pastorius, and the Creation of a Transnational Community,” Resources for American Literary Study 29 (2003–2004): 25–65; Erben, “ ‘Honey-Combs’ and ‘Paper-Hives’: Positioning Francis Daniel Pastorius’s Manuscript Writings in Early Pennsylvania,” Early American Literature 37, no. 2 (2002): 157–194; Lambert, “Francis Daniel Pastorius.”

14 Edwin Wolf II, The Book Culture of a Colonial American City: Philadelphia Books, Bookmen, and Booksellers (Oxford, 1988). On Pastorius’s library, see also Lyman W. Riley, “Books from the ‘Beehive’ Manuscript of Francis Daniel Pastorius,” Quaker History 83 (1994): 116–129.

15 Brooke Palmieri, “ ‘What the Bees Have Taken Pains For’: Francis Daniel Pastorius, The Beehive, and Commonplacing in Colonial Pennsylvania” (B.A. thesis, University of Pennsylvania, 2009),

16 For the digitized Bee-Hive, see Patrick Erben, Alfred Brophy, and Margo Lambert are also preparing A Francis Daniel Pastorius Reader: Selective Edition of Published and Manuscript Writings for the Pennsylvania State University Press.

17 Bodleian Library, Oxford, MS Casaubon 19. For Casaubon’s work on Polybius, see Isaac Casaubon,Polibio, ed. Guerrino F. Brussich (Palermo, 1991).

18 Bodleian Library, Oxford, MS Casaubon 19, title page: “Σηαι In hoc auctore non placet nobis quod toties suum institutum, scopum et finem repetit et ob oculos ponit. Nam quorsum idem toties? Nisi putaret solum se a militibus Graecanicis lectum iri, aut hircosis centurionibus. Tale omnino vitium licet notare in Varronis lib. De L. L. Perlege principia et fines singulorum librorum, eadem ubique reperies non sine aliquo taedio, meo certe, repetita.” For the smelly centurions, cf. a text that Casaubon edited, Persius Satirae 3.77.

19 See Lisa Jardine and Anthony Grafton, “ ‘Studied for Action’: How Gabriel Harvey Read His Livy,”Past & Present 129, no. 1 (1990): 30–78; William H. Sherman, John Dee: The Politics of Reading and Writing in the English Renaissance (Amherst, Mass., 1995).

20 For Petrarch, see the classic work of Pierre de Nolhac, Pétrarque et l’humanisme, new ed., 2 vols. (Paris, 1907); and Carol Everhart Quillen, Rereading the Renaissance: Petrarch, Augustine, and the Language of Humanism (Ann Arbor, Mich., 1998); for Poliziano, see the materials gathered in Paolo Viti, ed., Pico, Poliziano e l’Umanesimo di fine Quattrocento: Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, 4 novembre–31 dicembre 1994. Catalogo (Firenze, 1994); for Machiavelli, see Alison Brown, The Return of Lucretius to Renaissance Florence (Cambridge, Mass., 2010).

21 See, e.g., Celio Calcagnini, Opera aliquot (Basel, 1544), 26.

22 Ann Moss, Printed Commonplace-Books and the Structuring of Renaissance Thought (Oxford, 1996); Francis Goyet, Le sublime du “lieu commun”: L’invention rhétorique dans l’Antiquité et à la Renaissance (Paris, 1996); Earle Havens, Commonplace Books: A History of Manuscripts and Printed Books from Antiquity to the Twentieth Century (New Haven, Conn., 2001); Ann Blair, “Reading Strategies for Coping with Information Overload, ca. 1550–1700,” Journal of the History of Ideas 64, no. 1 (2003): 11–28; Blair, “Note Taking as an Art of Transmission,” Critical Inquiry 31, no. 1 (2004): 85–107; Blair, “Scientific Reading: An Early Modernist’s Perspective,” Isis 95, no. 3 (2004): 420–430; Blair, Too Much to Know: Managing Scholarly Information before the Modern Age (New Haven, Conn., 2010). Valuable material is also available on the “Commonplace Books” page of Harvard’s Open Collections Program,

23 British Library, MS Add. 6038.

24 William H. Sherman, Used Books: Marking Readers in Renaissance England (Philadelphia, 2008).

25 Anthony Grafton and Joanna Weinberg, “I have always loved the Holy Tongue”: Isaac Casaubon, the Jews, and a Forgotten Chapter in Renaissance Scholarship (Cambridge, Mass., 2011), 21; Rita Calderini de-Marchi, Jacopo Corbinelli et les érudits français d’après la correspondance inédite Corbinelli-Pinelli (1566–1587) (Milan, 1914), 176.

26 Jeremias Drexel, Aurifodina artium et scientiarum omnium: Excerpendi solertia, omnibus litterarum amantibus monstrata (Antwerp, 1641). Drexel dwells at length on the image on his title page in his preface “Benevolo lectori meo,” sigs. [A6 recto]–[A8 recto]. See, e.g., sig. [A 6 recto]: “Non ego te in Ophir Terram auream, non in Iberiam metallorum feracissimam, non in Aethiopiam matrem auri admodum foecundam mitto: ad tuum te museum ablego, nec manibus ferrum sed calamum ingero, et familiarissime suadeo rogoque: Hic fode. Quod non solum sine periculo et damno, sed tuo ingenti bono facies.”

27 Horn, Orbis imperans; LCP, Rare | Am 1668 Hor Log 687.D.1.

28 Horn, Arca Mosis, LCP, Rare | Am 1668 Hor Log 798.D, blank leaf before p. 1:

Deus creavit varias Species (p. 1)
his Benedixit (p. 100)
Et Maledixit (p. 109)
Maledictionem sustulit (p. 128)
Tandemque mundum Instaurabit (p. 219)
(God created the various species, p. 1; he blessed them, p. 100; and cursed them, p. 109; he removed the curse, p. 128; and at last he will restore the world, p. 219).

29 Horn, Orbis politicus, LCP, Rare | Am 1668 Hor (b.w.) Log 687.D.2, 11.

30 Ibid., 96.

31 See Francesco Petrarca, Petrarch’s Letters to Classical Authors, trans. and ed. Mario Emilio Cosenza (Chicago, 1910).

32 See, e.g., UPL, MS Codex 726, I, 115, where Pastorius remarks about Horn’s Orbis imperans andOrbis politicus: “Of these two books I shall have use in my nominal Observations.”

33 Horn, Arca Mosis, LCP, Rare | Am 1668 Hor Log 798.D, 47: “Aethiopia cutis mollis & porosa, quia sol absumsit particulas rigidas.”

34 See Palmieri, “ ‘What the Bees Have Taken Pains For,’ ” 18–19 and fig. 4.

35 Michael Pexenfelder, Apparatus eruditionis tam rerum quam verborum per omnes artes et scientias(Nuremberg, 1670); LCP, Rare | Sev Pexe Log 626.O, title page: [top:] “Mundus non alio debebat nomine dici: / Nomen ab ornatu convenienter habet”; [right margin]: “Quisquis amas mundum, tibi prospice, quo sit eundum / Est via qua vadis, via pessima, plenaque cladis”; [bottom]: “Inservio studiis Francisci Danielis Pastorij”; “Rebus in humanis omnia sunt dubia, incerta, suspensa; magisque veritati similia, quam vera. Minuc. Felix.”

36 Johann Valentin Andreae, Menippus (Cologne, 1673); LCP, Rare | Sev Andr Log 359.D, 194. Here, between cap. 79, Nova reperta, and cap. 80, Perspicilia, Pastorius has written: “Multiplicata fides numero decrescit ab ipso, / Nunquam plus Fidei, Perfidieque fuit.”

37 Horn, Arca Mosis, LCP, Rare | Am 1668 Hor Log 798.D, sig. ** 3 recto. Horn writes: “Nec dubium est, omnes istos famam novitate aliqua aucupantes animas statim nostras negotiari. Hinc illae circa aegros miserae sententiarum concertationes, nullo idem censente, ne videatur accessio alterius. Hinc illa infelicis monumenti inscriptio turba se medicorum perisse.” Pastorius marked the passage throughout and commented on the bottom of the same page: “Quod morbus non potuit, fecerunt Medici, / Illorum turba me peremit: / Multorum Auxilio oppressus sum.” The first phrase alludes to a famous pasquinade from seventeenth-century Rome, directed against the harm supposedly done to the city by the Barberini family: “Quod non fecerunt barbari, fecerunt Barberini” (“What the barbarians have not done, the Barberini have done”).

38 Compare Pastorius’s remark about borrowing books: “Grata mutuo datorum librorum recordatio.” Quoted in DeElla Victoria Toms, “The Intellectual and Literary Background of Francis Daniel Pastorius” (Ph.D. diss., Northwestern University, 1953), 151.

39 See Frederick B. Tolles, James Logan and the Culture of Provincial America (Boston, 1957).

40 Edwin Wolf 2nd, The Library of James Logan of Philadelphia, 1674–1751 (Philadelphia, 1974).

41 James Logan, note on the flyleaf of Michael Pexenfelder, Apparatus eruditionis tam rerum quam verborum per omnes artes et scientias; LCP, Rare | Sev Pexe Log 626.O: “Emptus hic Liber a Phillipo Munckton cui vendidit eum filius mihi Amicissimi ffr. D. Pastorij Germanopolitani. 15.9bris. 1720.” Cf. the inscription John Winthrop entered in a book that had been a favorite possession of the inventor Cornelis Drebbel, and that was given to Winthrop by Drebbel’s son-in-law: Woodward, Prospero’s America, 32.

42 Quoted by Toms, “The Intellectual and Literary Background of Francis Daniel Pastorius,” 154.

43 Pastorius to Richard and Hannah Hill, January 23, 1716/1717; HSP, Pastorius Collection, MS Am 475: “Of the old Romans we read that they had their 1st, 2d and 3d rate friends, admitting some only into the Court-yard or hall, others into the Antichamber or parlour, but their privados into their Closets, and bed-rooms. So me thinks we may do the same with a blameless partiality.”

44 April G. Shelford, Transforming the Republic of Letters: Pierre-Daniel Huet and European Intellectual Life, 1650–1720 (Rochester, N.Y., 2007); Sarah Gwyneth Ross, The Birth of Feminism: Woman as Intellect in Renaissance Italy and England (Cambridge, Mass., 2009); Carol Pal, “Republic of Women: Rethinking the Republic of Letters, 1630–1680” (Ph.D. diss., Stanford University, 2007).

45 Pastorius to Lloyd Zachary, Germantown, December 19, 1719; HSP, Pastorius Collection, MS Am 475: “PS Remitto denique tomum IVum Spectatoris sive contemplatoris skeptici Magnae Britanniae, qui me nescio diutius inter seclusos meos libellulos in Conclavi hac hyeme parum frequentato delituit, quam illi concessissem, si non jam pridem remeasse putassem. Veniam igitur juste irascentis Proprietariae humiliter deprecor, et ne propter Peccatum hoc Ignorantiae Volumen V deneget Tua, quod spero, Intercessio procurabit.” For Pastorius’s correspondence with Zachary in French and Latin, see Toms, “The Intellectual and Literary Background of Francis Daniel Pastorius,” 155–161.

46 Pastorius to Lydia Norton, Germantown, June 14, 1710; HSP, Pastorius Collection, MS Am 475.

47 Pastorius to Isaac Norris, n.d.; HSP, Pastorius Collection, MS Am 475.

48 UPL, MS Codex 726, I, 1.

49 Kate Peters, Print Culture and the Early Quakers (Cambridge, 2005).

50 UPL, MS Codex 89, 1.

51 For the impact of Pliny’s work in later eras, see Charles G. Nauert, Jr., “Humanists, Scientists, and Pliny: Changing Approaches to a Classical Author,” American Historical Review 84, no. 1 (February 1979): 72–85; Arno Borst, Das Buch der Naturgeschichte: Plinius und seine Leser im Zeitalter des Pergaments (Heidelberg, 1994); Mary Beagon, “Pliny the Elder,” in Anthony Grafton, Glenn W. Most, and Salvatore Settis, eds., The Classical Tradition (Cambridge, Mass., 2010), 744–745.

52 Pliny the Younger, Epistolae 3.5.6: “opus diffusum eruditum, nec minus varium quam ipsa natura.”

53 Ibid., 3.5.10: “Nihil enim legit quod non excerperet; dicere etiam solebat nullum esse librum tam malum ut non aliqua parte prodesset.” On the portrait that this letter paints of the elder Pliny, see John Henderson, Pliny’s Statue: The Letters, Self-Portraiture and Classical Art (Exeter, 2002), 69–103; Aude Doody, Pliny’s Encyclopedia: The Reception of the “Natural History” (Cambridge, 2010), 14–23.

54 Pliny the Younger, Epistolae 3.5.17: “Hac intentione tot ista volumina peregit electorumque commentarios centum sexaginta mihi reliquit, opisthographos quidem et minutissimis scriptos; qua ratione multiplicatur hic numerus. Referebat ipse potuisse se, cum procuraret in Hispania, vendere hos commentarios Larcio Licino quadringentis milibus nummum; et tunc aliquanto pauciores erant.” Many details of the elder Pliny’s methods of reading, annotating, and excerpting remain obscure. For some of the possibilities, see the careful, detailed analyses of Tiziano Dorandi, “Den Autoren über die Schulter geschaut: Arbeitsweise und Autographie bei den Antiken Schriftstellern,” Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 87 (1991): 11–33, here 13–15; Valérie Naas, Le projet encyclopédique de Pline l’Ancien(Rome, 2002), 108–136.

55 UPL, MS Codex 726, I, 1.

56 See, e.g., Michael O’Brien, Conjectures of Order: Intellectual Life and the American South, 1810–1860, 2 vols. (Chapel Hill, N.C., 2004); and Caroline Winterer, The Mirror of Antiquity: American Women and the Classical Tradition, 1750–1900 (Ithaca, N.Y., 2007); for the sofa, see 125–131.

57 For a classic and influential critique of Pliny’s bookishness, see G. E. R. Lloyd, Science, Folklore and Ideology: Studies in the Life Sciences in Ancient Greece (Cambridge, 1983), 135–149.

58 On the nature of Pliny’s scholarship, see Sorcha Carey, Pliny’s Catalogue of Culture: Art and Empire in the “Natural History” (Oxford, 2003); Trevor Murphy, Pliny the Elder’s “Natural History”: The Empire in the Encyclopedia (Oxford, 2004), 52–73; Mary Beagon, The Elder Pliny on the Human Animal: Natural History, Book 7 (Oxford, 2005), 20–38.

59 Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia, praefatio 21–22: “Argumentum huius stomachi mei habebis quod in his voluminibus auctorum nomina praetexui. Est enim benignum, ut arbitror, et plenum ingenui pudoris fateri per quos profeceris, non ut plerique ex iis, quos attigi, fecerunt. Scito enim conferentem auctores me deprehendisse a iuratissimis ex proximis veteres transcriptos ad verbum neque nominatos, non illa Vergiliana virtute, ut certarent, non Tulliana simplicitate, qui de re publica Platonis se comitem profitetur, in consolatione filiae Crantorem, inquit, sequor, item Panaetium de officiis, quae volumina ediscenda, non modo in manibus cotidie habenda, nosti.” For Pliny’s understanding of intellectual property and scholarly integrity, see Eugenia Lao, “Luxury and the Creation of a Good Consumer,” in Roy K. Gibson and Ruth Morello, eds., Pliny the Elder: Themes and Contexts (Leiden, 2011), 35–56.

60 UPL, MS Codex 89, 301: “Ingenuum est fateri per quos profeceris. Plin. ex quibus scripseris.”

61 John Whitaker, “The Value of Indirect Tradition in the Establishment of Greek Philosophical Texts or the Art of Misquotation,” in John N. Grant, ed., Editing Greek and Latin Texts: Papers Given at the Twenty-Third Annual Conference on Editorial Problems, University of Toronto, 6–7 November 1987(New York, 1989), 63–95.

62 UPL, MS Codex 726, I, 2.

63 Robert Burton, The Anatomy of Melancholy, ed. Thomas C. Faulkner, Nicolas K. Kiessling, and Rhonda L. Blair, 3 vols. (Oxford, 1989–1994), 1: 11, 8. For Burton and his contemporaries’ role in the history of the commonplace, see Quentin Skinner, Reason and Rhetoric in the Philosophy of Hobbes(Cambridge, 1996), 118–119.

64 Spectator, no. 316; The Spectator, with Illustrative Notes, ed. Robert Bisset, 8 vols. (London, 1793–1794), 5: 126.

65 John Locke, A New Method of Making Common-Place-Books (London, 1706); cf. Locke, A Little Common Place Book (Brooklyn, N.Y., 2010), for a commonplace book constructed on Locke’s principles. For Locke’s method for indexing notebooks and its influence, see Blair, Too Much to Know.

66 Jonathan Swift, A Tale of a Tub, and Other Work, ed. Angus Ross and David Woolley (Oxford, 1986).

67 Pastorius, Deliciae hortenses, ed. Schweitzer, 74.

68 Shell and Sollors, The Multilingual Anthology of American Literature, 12–41.

69 See the classic study of Erich Trunz, “Der deutsche Späthumanismus um 1600 als Standeskultur,” in Richard Alewyn, ed., Deutsche Barockforschung: Dokumentation einer Epoche (Cologne, 1965), 147–181; for more recent perspectives, see Anton Schindling, Humanistische Hochschule und freie Reichsstadt: Gymnasium und Akademie in Strassburg, 1538–1621 (Wiesbaden, 1977); Wilhelm Kühlmann, Gelehrtenrepublik und Fürstenstaat: Entwicklung und Kritik des deutschen Späthumanismus in der Literatur des Barockzeitalters (Tübingen, 1982); Gunter Grimm, Literatur und Gelehrtentum in Deutschland: Untersuchungen zum Wandel ihres Verhältnisses von Humanismus bis zur Frühaufklärung(Tübingen, 1983); Manfred Fleischer, Späthumanismus in Schlesien: Ausgewählte Aufsätze (Munich, 1984); Notker Hammerstein and Gerrit Walther, eds., Späthumanismus: Studien über das Ende einer kulturhistorischen Epoche (Göttingen, 2000); Axel E. Walter, Späthumanismus und Konfessionspolitik: Die europäische Gelehrtenrepublik um 1600 im Spiegel der Korrespondenzen Georg Michael Lingelsheims (Tübingen, 2004).

70 UPL, MS Codex 726, I, 406. On Schumberg and his relationship with Pastorius, see Toms, “The Intellectual and Literary Background of Francis Daniel Pastorius,” 28, 117–118.

71 Desiderius Erasmus, De duplici copia rerum ac verborum commentarii duo (Paris, 1512); for an English translation by Betty I. Knott, see “Copia: Foundations of the Abundant Style,” in Collected Works of Erasmus, vol. 24: Literary and Educational Writings 2 (Toronto, 1978), 279–660.

72 Desiderius Erasmus, Adagiorum chiliades tres ac centuriae fere totidem (Venice, 1508); for an English translation by Roger Mynors and others, see Collected Works of Erasmus, vols. 31–36: Adages(Toronto, 1982–).

73 Terence Cave, The Cornucopian Text: Problems of Writing in the French Renaissance (Oxford, 1979); Moss, Printed Commonplace-Books and the Structuring of Renaissance Thought; Kathy Eden,Friends Hold All Things in Common: Tradition, Intellectual Property, and the Adages of Erasmus (New Haven, Conn., 2001).

74 Anthony Grafton and Lisa Jardine, From Humanism to the Humanities: Education and the Liberal Arts in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Europe (London, 1986).

75 Cotton Mather, The Christian Philosopher, ed. Winton U. Solberg (Urbana, Ill., 1994), 10; William Darlington, Memorials of John Bartram and Humphry Marshall (Philadelphia, 1849), 352.

76 See Leonard Forster, The Icy Fire: Five Studies in European Petrarchism (London, 1969); Forster,The Poet’s Tongues: Multilingualism in Literature (London, 1970).

77 UPL, MS Codex 726, I, 1.

78 See the moving case study by Donna Merwick, Death of a Notary: Conquest and Change in Colonial New York (Ithaca, N.Y., 1999).

79 See in general R. J. W. Evans, The Making of the Habsburg Monarchy, 1550–1700: An Interpretation (Oxford, 1979); Anthony Grafton, “The World of the Polyhistors: Humanism and Encyclopedism,” Central European History 18, no. 1 (1985): 31–47. On Kircher, see Daniel Stolzenberg, ed., The Great Art of Knowing: The Baroque Encyclopedia of Athanasius Kircher (Stanford, Calif., 2001); Paula Findlen, ed., Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man Who Knew Everything (New York, 2004); Angela Mayer-Deutsch, Das Musaeum Kircherianum: Kontemplative Momente, historische Rekonstruktion, Bildrhetorik (Berlin, 2010).

80 Peter Lambeck, Prodromus historiae literariae, et Tabula duplex chronographica universalis, ed. Johann Albert Fabricius (Leipzig, 1710).

81 Nicolaus Gundling, Vollständige Geschichte der Gelahrtheit, 5 vols. (Frankfurt, 1734–1736). See Martin Gierl, Pietismus und Aufklärung: Theologische Polemik und die Kommunikationsreform der Wissenschaft am Ende des 17. Jahrhunderts (Göttingen, 1997).

82 Blair, Too Much to Know. See also Markus Krajewski, Paper Machines: About Cards and Catalogs, 1548–1929, trans. Peter Krapp (Cambridge, Mass., 2011), 17–21. Placcius’s account of the scrinium litteratum appears in his De arte excerpendi (Stockholm, 1689), 124–159. For Harrison and the Hartlib circle, see the magnificent article by Noel Malcolm “Thomas Harrison and His ‘Ark of Studies’: An Episode in the History of the Organization of Knowledge,” The Seventeenth Century 19, no. 2 (2004): 196–232.

83 See Jean Paul, Schulmeisterlein Wutz, ed. Eva J. Engel (The Hague, 1962).

84 Pierre Bayard, How to Talk about Books You Haven’t Read, trans. Jeffrey Mehlman (New York, 2007).

85 Conrad Samuel Schurzfleisch, Schurzfleischiana, sive varia de scriptoribus librisque iudicia, ed. Godofredus Wagener (Wittenberg, 1741), 108: “Sunt, qui coniicere ausint, Iosephum a patre Iulio Caesare castratum esse, ne matrimonium iniret, neque splendorem familiae illustris detereret.”

86 The richest study of these methods, their sources, and their afterlife is Blair, Too Much to Know.

87 I used Christoph August Heumann, Conspectus reipublicae literariae: Sive Via ad historiam literariam iuuentuti studiosae aperta a Christophoro Augusto Heumanno, 5th ed. (Hanover, 1746).

88 Gottlieb Stolle, Anmerckungen über D. Heumanns Conspectum Reipublicae Literariae: Allen Liebhabern der Historie der Gelahrheit zu Liebe an den Tag gegeben (Jena, 1738). I possess an interleaved copy annotated by an anonymous owner.

89 Melchior Adam Pastorius, Römischer Adler, oder Theatrum electionis et coronationis Romano-Caesareae (Frankfurt am Main, 1657).

90 Melchior Adam Pastorius, Franconia rediviva. Das ist: Des Hochlöblichen Fränckischen Craises so wohl genealogische als historische Beschreibung (Nuremberg, 1702).

91 Melchior Adam Pastorius, “Liber intimissimus omnium semper mecum continens thesaurum thesaurorum Iesum, quem diligo solum. in quo vivo et in quo moriar ego”; HSP, Pastorius Collection, MS Am 475; UPL, MS Codex 1150, for which see below.

92 UPL, MS Codex 726, I, 407.

93 Johann Heinrich Boecler, Bibliographia historico-politico-philologica curiosa: Quid in quovis scriptore laudem censuramve mereatur, exhibens, cui præfixa celeberrimi cujusdam viri de studio politico bene instituendo dissertatio epistolica posthuma (Germanopolis [i.e., Frankfurt am Main], 1677). For another form of compilation—titled “excerpts,” but actually consisting of discussions of such great events as the condemnation of the Templars, reduced to outline form and lists of references to the sources—see his Excerpta controversiarum illustrium (Strasbourg, 1680).

94 Johann Heinrich Boecler, Bibliographia critica scriptores omnium artium atque scientiarum ordine percensens, nunc demum integra (Leipizg, 1715).

95 Johann Gottlieb Krause, “Praefatio,” ibid., sig. b recto.

96 Boecler, Bibliographia historico-politico-philologica curiosa, sig. F verso–F ii recto.

97 Boecler, Bibliographia critica, 232–233.

98 Francis Daniel Pastorius, Disputatio inauguralis de rasura documentorum (Altdorf, 1676).

99 Ibid., 3–4. This was, of course, the period in which diplomatics and paleography, the formal arts that ascertained whether documents were authentic, first took shape. Jean Mabillon’s De re diplomaticawould appear in 1681. For a recent study, see Alfred Hiatt, “Diplomatic Arts: Hickes against Mabillon in the Republic of Letters,” Journal of the History of Ideas 70, no. 3 (2009): 351–373.

100 Pastorius, Disputatio inauguralis de rasura documentorum, 19; “Intricate hic controvertitur, an ob artis, quam delinquens callet, praestantiam poena debeat mitigari? Ut ecce si Notario manus sit amputanda, vid. 2. FF. 55. qui tamen vel pingendi, vel alterius generis arte adeo excellit, ut omne ingenium in digitos ipsi abiisse videatur?”

101 For the notary’s art in this period, see Merwick’s luminous investigation of practices in Holland and New Amsterdam, Death of a Notary, and the rich studies of Laurie Nussdorfer, Brokers of Public Trust: Notaries in Early Modern Rome (Baltimore, 2009), and Kathryn Burns, Into the Archive: Writing and Power in Colonial Peru (Durham, N.C., 2010).

102 Christophorus Schrader, Tabulae chronologicae a prima rerum origine ad natum Christum(Helmstedt, 1673); LCP, Rare | *Sev Tabu 1405.F.10.

103 Heinrich Schaevius, Sceleton Geographicum: In usus Poëticos & Historicos adornatum, 4th ed. (Braunschweig, 1671), LCP, Rare | *Sev Tabu (b.w.) 1405.F.12, sig. A recto, where the text mentions “Cosmographia, quae totum mundum visiblem depingit: id quod intendit Plinius,” Pastorius adds “& Munsterus.”

104 Ibid., sig. A2 recto, where the text discusses “Divisio Terrae quintuplex,” Pastorius writes: “Totus terrarum Orbis etiam dividitur in 3. partes, sive Insulas magnas, quas Oceanus circumfluit, quarum 1a continet Europam, Asiam et Africam, 2a Americam, et 3a Megallanicam, quae et Australis et Incognita vocatur.”

105 Carlo Sigonio, Marquard Freher, and David Chytraeus, Romanorum Germanorumque Caesarum nominum, successionum et Seculorum A Nato Christo Distincta Notatio (Helmstedt, 1666), LCP, Rare | *Sev Tabu 1405.F.11. At the end of Chytraeus’s list of historians [sig. H 2 recto] is a note: “Gottfrid Arnolds unparteyische kirchen und ketzer histori, von Christi geburt an biss auffs Jahr 1688. in folio, gedruckt zu Franckfurt.” On the verso [sig. H 2 verso] appears a manuscript, “Index scriptorum ecclesiasticorum.”

106 On the study of cryptography and steganography and their relation to other forms of scholarship in this period, see Gerhard F. Strasser, Lingua universalis: Kryptologie und Theorie der Universalsprachen im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert (Wiesbaden, 1988).

107 Pexenfelder, Apparatus eruditionis tam rerum quam verborum per omnes artes et scientias, 309: “Steganographia est clandestina seu clancularia scribendi ratio, occultis utens signis, ex compacto paucorum, intelligibilibus, ut B pro A; C pro B. Vel numeri adhibentur pro literis, ut 1 pro a. 2. pro b. 3. pro c.Vel pro arbitrio transmutatur alphabetum. Vel novi characteres efformantur: vel inaspecti quopiam illiti succo exarantur in panno, non nisi frigida madefacti legendi, aut in charta ad lucernam transparente colligendi, &c.”

108 Ibid.: “Vide pag. seq. sub finem.”

109 Ibid., 310–311. Pastorius has wreathed the margins with leaf prints, and where Pexenfelder writes “Characteres seu literae sunt metallicae,” Pastorius has added a note in the bottom margin: “vel Naturales, hortorum Camporumque propago, ut quaedam apparent in Margine: vel Artificiales. Ex prioribus Absinthium denotat A. Beta B. Crocus C. Filix F. &c. hasque Botanici optime intelligunt.”

110 See also Shirley Hershey Showalter, “ ‘The Herbal Signs of Nature’s Page’: A Study of Francis Daniel Pastorius’ View of Nature,” Quaker History 71, no. 2 (1982): 89–99; Christoph Schweitzer, “Francis Daniel Pastorius, the German-American Poet,” Yearbook of German-American Studies 18 (1983): 21–28; and above all Andrew Thomas, “Gardening in the New World: Francis Daniel Pastorius’s Conception of Community in the Settlement of Germantown,” forthcoming in William & Mary Quarterly.

111 UPL, MS Codex 726, I, 141.

112 Michael Aitzinger, De leone Belgico, eiusque topographica atque historica descriptione liber(Cologne, 1583). See Sir George Clark, War and Society in the Seventeenth Century (Cambridge, 1958).

113 On Wagenseil, see Nathanael Riemer, Zwischen Tradition und Häresie: “Beer Sheva”—eine Enzyklopädie des jüdischen Wissens der Frühen Neuzeit (Wiesbaden, 2010), 31–59.

114 Monatliche Unterredungen 3 (1691): 278–288. For the rise of journals in the German world, see Hub. Laeven, The “Acta eruditorum” under the Editorship of Otto Mencke (1644–1707): The History of an International Learned Journal between 1682 and 1707, trans. Lynne Richards (Amsterdam, 1990); Gierl, Pietismus und Aufklärung, 395–417; and, more generally, Anne Goldgar, Impolite Learning: Conduct and Community in the Republic of Letters, 1680–1750 (New Haven, Conn., 1995).

115 On Penn and the long peace, see James Merrell, Into the American Woods: Negotiators on the Pennsylvania Frontier (New York, 1999). For the later history of relations between white settlers and Native Americans in the middle colonies, see Peter Silver, Our Savage Neighbors: How Indian War Transformed Early America (New York, 2008).

116 Monatliche Unterredungen 3 (1691): 287–288: “Ex his elementis, sive etiam, quod matrem ana, uxorem squáa, vetulam hexis, diabolum menitto, domum wicco, praedium hockihócken, vaccam muss, suem Kuschkusch, appellitent, si tu Indorum horum incunabula divinaveris, bonus mihi eris Philologus &c.” For early modern scholars’ theories about the origins of the Indians, see Lee Eldridge Huddleston,Origins of the American Indians: European Concepts, 1492–1729 (Austin, Tex., 1967); Giuliano Gliozzi,Adamo e il nuovo mondo: La nascita dell’antropologia come ideologia coloniale: Dalle genealogie bibliche alle teorie razziali (1500–1700) (Florence, 1977); David N. Livingstone, Adam’s Ancestors: Race, Religion, and the Politics of Human Origins (Baltimore, 2008).

117 Nigel Leask, Curiosity and the Aesthetics of Travel Writing, 1770–1840: “From an Antique Land”(Oxford, 2002).

118 Monatliche Unterredungen 3 (1691): 283: “Pergamus, et ne silentio viam transigamus veluti pecora, sermocinemur aliquid de Nili, vel quae aeque obscura est, Indorum nostrorum origine. Nam licet non desint, qui eos Ebraeorum arbitrentur prosapiam, non sine signis verosimillimis: quosdam tamen longius hinc habitantium ex Cambria emersisse, nativa illorum loquutio innuit. Quibus autem temporibus atque navigiis Atlanticum hoc mare exantlaverint, Polyhistor tuus Altdorfinus distinctius explicet: ego nec ullo pene libro instructus tam dubiam litem meam non facio.”

119 On Horn, see Adalbert Klempt, Die Säkularisierung der universalhistorischen Auffassung: Zum Wandel des Geschichtsdenkens im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert (Göttingen, 1960), who emphasizes his originality; and Erich Hassinger, Empirisch-rationaler Historismus: Seine Ausbildung in der Literatur Westeuropas von Guiccardini bis Saint-Evremond (Bern, 1978), who stresses his limitations.

120 Sanjay Subrahmanyam, Three Ways to Be Alien: Travails and Encounters in the Early Modern World (Waltham, Mass., 2011); Daniel Lord Smail, On Deep History and the Brain (Berkeley, Calif., 2008).

121 UPL, MS Codex 726, I, 1: “For as much as our Memory is not capable to retain all remarkable words, Phrases, Sentences or Matters of moment, which we do hear and read, It becomes every good Scholar to have a Common Place-Book, and therein to treasure up what ever deserves his Notice, &c.”

122 See Justin Stagl, Apodemiken: Eine räsonnierte Bibliographie der reisetheoretischen Literatur des 16., 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts (Paderborn, 1983); Stagl, A History of Curiosity: The Theory of Travel, 1550–1800 (Chur, 1995).

123 In addition to Stagl’s studies, see Clare Howard, English Travellers of the Renaissance (1914; repr., New York, 1968). On Barclay, see Hassinger, Empirisch-rationaler Historismus.

124 UPL, MS Codex 726, 223.

125 UPL, MS Codex 1150: Melchior Adam Pastorius, Erffurtensis, Itinerarium et vitae curriculus, das ist, Seine Völlige Reis-Beschreibunge und gantzer Lebenslauff, sampt einigen Merckwürdigen Begebenheiten und anzaigungen derer iedes Orths befindlichen Raritäten, partly edited, with other materials, in Pastorius, Des Melchior Adam Pastorius … Leben und Reisebeschreibungen von ihm selbst erzählt, ed. Albert R. Schmitt (Munich, 1968).

126 UPL, MS Codex 726, I, 307.

127 Toms, “The Intellectual and Literary Background of Francis Daniel Pastorius,” 154.

128 Franciscus Schottus, Itinerarium Italiae (Amsterdam, 1655); LCP, Rare | Sev Scho Log 654.D. On this book and its evolution, see Ludwig Schudt, “Das ‘Itinerarium Italiae’ des Franciscus Schottus,” in Adolf Goldschmidt, Adolf Goldschmidt zu seinem siebenzigsten Geburtstag am 15. Januar 1933 dargebracht (Berlin, 1935), 144–152; and E. S. de Beer, “François Schott’s Itinerario d’Italia,” The Library, 4th ser., 23, no. 2–3 (1942): 57–83.

129 Schottus, Itinerarium Italiae, sigs. A3 verso–A4 recto, here A4 recto: “Vulgi mores: quo pertinent ratio victus et vestitus; item opificia.”

130 Francis Daniel Pastorius, “Circumstantial Geographical Description of Pennsylvania,” in Albert Cook Myers, ed., Narratives of Early Pennsylvania, West New Jersey and Delaware, 1630–1707 (New York, 1912), 362–363, 446–447. For a detailed discussion of this work, see Lambert, “Francis Daniel Pastorius.”

131 Johann Burkhard Mencke, The Charlatanry of the Learned, trans. Francis E. Litz, ed. H. L. Mencken (New York, 1937), 61–62, 69, 64 (slightly altered); Mencke, De charlataneria eruditorum declamationes duae (Leipzig, 1715), 13, 20, 15–16. See in general Conrad Wiedemann, “Polyhistors Glück und Ende: Von D.G. Morhof zum jungen Lessing,” in Heinz Otto Burger and Klaus von See, eds.,Festschrift Gottfried Weber (Bad Homburg, 1967), 215–235; Leonard Forster, “ ‘Charlataneria eruditorum’ zwischen Barock und Aufklärung in Deutschland,” in Sebastian Neumeister and Conrad Wiedemann, eds., Res publica litteraria: Die Institutionen der Gelehrsamkeit in der frühen Neuzeit, 2 vols. (Wies-baden, 1987), 1: 203–220; Gunter E. Grimm, Letternkultur: Wissenschaftskritik und antigelehrtes Dichten in Deutschland von der Renaissance bis zum Sturm und Drang (Tübingen, 1998); Pascale Hummel, Moeurs érudites: Étude sur la micrologie littéraire (Allemagne, XVIe–XVIIIe siècles)(Geneva, 2002); Alexander Košenina, Der gelehrte Narr: Gelehrtensatire seit der Aufklärung (Göttingen, 2003); Kasper Risbjerg Eskildsen, “How Germany Left the Republic of Letters,” Journal of the History of Ideas 65, no. 3 (July 2004): 421–432; Marian Füssel, “ ‘The Charlatanry of the Learned’: On the Moral Economy of the Republic of Letters in Eighteenth-Century Germany,” Cultural and Social History3 (2006): 287–300; Herbert Jaumann, ed., Diskurse der Gelehrtenkultur in der frühen Neuzeit: Ein Handbuch (Berlin, 2011). On the rituals and mores of the Republic of Letters, and especially for the forms of conduct and publication that could lead to expulsion from it, see Martin Mulsow, Die unanständige Gelehrtenrepublik: Wissen, Libertinage und Kommunikation in der Frühen Neuzeit(Stuttgart, 2007).

132 UPL, MS Codex 726, I, 406: “Anno 1668. the 31th of July I went with some others to the University of Altdorf, there to be Innitiated among Students (which they call Deponisten), giving to those Novices with abundance of impertinent Ceremonies the Salt of Wisdom, Sal Sapientiae.”

133 Note especially his copy of Andreae’s Menippus; LCP, Rare | Sev Andr Log 359.D.

134 See, e.g., UPL, MS Codex 726, I, 114: “Augustus Hermannus Franck his Pietas Hallensis, or historical Narration of the Orphan-house & other Charitable Institutions at Glaucha near Hall in Saxony. London in 8° 1705”; “Pietas Hallensis, or an Abstract of the Marvellous Footsteps of Divine Providence attending the Management of the Orphan house at Glaucha near Hall. London 8°. 1710.”

135 Ian Hunter, “Christian Thomasius and the Desacralization of Philosophy,” Journal of the History of Ideas 61, no. 4 (2000): 595–616.

136 On Thomasius, see generally Notker Hammerstein, Jus und Historie: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des historischen Denkens an deutschen Universitäten im späten 17. und im 18. Jahrhundert (Göttingen, 1972), 43–147.

137 Gierl, Pietismus und Aufklärung, 21–324.

138 On early modern eclecticism, see in general Michael Albrecht, Eklektik: Eine Begriffsgeschichte mit Hinweisen auf die Philosophie- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte (Stuttgart–Bad Cannstatt, 1994). On Thomasius’s own position, see F. M. Barnard, “The ‘Practical Philosophy’ of Christian Thomasius,”Journal of the History of Ideas 32, no. 2 (1971): 221–246; Horst Dreitzel, “Zur Entwicklung und Eigenart der ‘Eklektischen Philosophie,’ ” Zeitschrift für Historische Forschung 18 (1991): 281–343, here 324–330; Martin Mulsow, “Eclecticism or Skepticism? A Problem of the Early Enlightenment,”Journal of the History of Ideas 58, no. 3 (1997): 465–477.

139 Christian Thomasius, Introductio ad philosophiam aulicam (Leipzig, 1688), 46: “Ita praestat, navem habere ad navigandum aptam, etsi saepius in partibus renovatam, quae renovatio tamen identitatem non tollit, quam retinere perpetuo eandem non bene cohaerentem et rimarum plenam. Ita praestat aedificium a variis artificibus adornatum quam tuguriolum a rustico etsi uno extructum.”

140 Hammerstein, Jus und Historie, 43–147, 205–265. For the Renaissance foundations of “historia literaria,” see Wilhelm Schmidt-Biggemann, Topica universalis: Eine Modellgeschichte humanistischer und barocker Wissenschaft (Hamburg, 1983), 1–66; Michael C. Carhart, “Historia Literaria and Cultural History from Mylaeus to Eichhorn,” in Peter N. Miller, ed., Momigliano and Antiquarianism: Foundations of the Modern Cultural Sciences (Toronto, 2007), 184–206; and Frank Grunert and Friedrich Vollhardt, eds., Historia literaria: Neuordnungen des Wissens im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert(Berlin, 2007).

141 See Schmidt-Biggemann, Topica universalis, 212–225.

142 Gierl, Pietismus und Aufklärung, 487–574. For the role of religion in Thomasius’s thought, see Thomas Ahnert, Religion and the Origins of the German Enlightenment: Faith and the Reform of Learning in the Thought of Christian Thomasius (Rochester, N.Y., 2006).

143 Grafton and Weinberg, “I have always loved the Holy Tongue,” 15.

144 Ibid., 267–280.

145 UPL, MS Codex 726, I, 5.

146 Thomasius, Introductio ad philosophiam aulicam, sig. )o()o( 2 verso: “Putavi igitur, convenientius esse si de ejusmodi aberrationibus in tempore admonerer ab aliis veritatis amatoribus, ut in fusiore deductione hujus doctrinae ea, quae clarius et distinctius forte cogniturus essem, emendatius etiam ponerentur. Quare obligabunt me omnes atque singuli sapientiae studiosi, sive Cartesiani sive Peripatetici, sive alii cuidam sectae addicti sint, aut Philosophiam Eclecticam sequantur, si me forte incautum in devia incidentem ad genuinam veritatis semitam reducere haud gravatim velint.”

147 For Thomasius on witchcraft, see Christian Thomasius, Über die Hexenprozesse, ed. and trans. Rolf Lieberwirth (Weimar, 1967); for torture, see Lieberwirth, ed., Über die Folter (Weimar, 1960), excerpted in translation in Brian P. Levack, ed., The Witchcraft Sourcebook (London, 2005), 168–170.

148 The original text of the 1688 petition is held in the Quaker and Special Collections, Haverford College. A digitized version is available at The text appears in Learned, Pastorius, 261–262, and in the digital collection Slavery and Freedom in American History and Memory, For Pastorius’s part in the 1688 Germantown Protest, see Hildegard Binder-Johnson, “The Germantown Protest of 1688 against Negro Slavery,” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 65, no. 2 (1941): 145–156; and Katharine Gerbner, “Antislavery in Print: The Germantown Protest, the ‘Exhortation,’ and the Seventeenth-Century Quaker Debate on Slavery,” Early American Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 9, no. 3 (2011): 552–575, who warns against hagiographical interpretations.

149 Pastorius also read with great interest Giovanni Paolo Marana’s Letters Writ by a Turkish Spy (UPL, MS Codex 726, I, 115).

150 There was nothing novel in what Pastorius read in Horn. For earlier debates about the meaning of skin color, see Kim F. Hall, Things of Darkness: Economies of Race and Gender in Early Modern England (Ithaca, N.Y., 1995); T. F. Earle and K. J. P. Lowe, eds., Black Africans in Renaissance Europe (Cambridge, 2005); Natalie Zemon Davis, Trickster Travels: A Sixteenth-Century Muslim between Worlds (New York, 2006), 143–149.

151 Thomasius, Introductio ad philosophiam aulicam, 243: “Ostentatores sunt … 3. qui versiculos, sententias, verba Latina, Graeca, Hebraea, terminos scholasticos, leges, praecepta medica, aliaqueeruditionis argumenta proferunt, ubi nihil usu veniunt.”

152 Ulrich Huber, “Oratio de pedantismo,” ibid., 292–293: “Prorsus opera danda est. ne eruditio nostra cuidam gravis aut molesta sit; nec scio, an non huc, ipsum Latini sermonis commercium redigere nos oporteat, ut nec illud pedantismi sit expers, si absque necessitate frequentetur apud homines, quibus in promptu non est facultas hujus linguae, vel qui promiscuo ejus usu non delectantur. Dolendum equidem est, hoc commune gentium Christianarum vinculum ita resolvi in desuetudinem, ut etiam inter homines doctrinam professos Latine loqui, de rebus a studiorum disceptatione alienis, paedagogicum habeatur”; 295: “Demus hoc socordiae seculi et tralatitiae humanitati, ut eorum, qui Latina reformidant pudori ignoscamus; sed nunquam inter nos invicem illam gentis gentium dominae linguam cessemus reddere nobis familiarem; sine cujus exprompta facultate omnis eruditio nostra tanquam situ squalida sordescit et sapientia balbutire videtur.”

153 Erben, “ ‘Honey-Combs’ and ‘Paper-Hives.’ ”

154 Palmieri, “ ‘What the Bees Have Taken Pains For.’ ”

155 For recent research on various forms of these themes, see, e.g., J. G. A. Pocock, Barbarism and Religion, 5 vols. to date (Cambridge, 1999–); Peter N. Miller, Peiresc’s Europe: Learning and Virtue in the Seventeenth Century (New Haven, Conn., 2000); Jonathan Sheehan, The Enlightenment Bible: Translation, Scholarship, Culture (Princeton, N.J., 2005); Jacob Soll, Publishing “The Prince”: History, Reading, and the Birth of Political Criticism (Ann Arbor, Mich., 2005); Dan Edelstein, “Humanism, l’Esprit Philosophique, and the Encyclopédie,” Republics of Letters 1, no. 1 (2009),; Edelstein, The Enlightenment: A Genealogy (Chicago, 2010); David Sorkin, The Religious Enlightenment: Protestants, Jews, and Catholics from London to Vienna(Princeton, N.J., 2008); Guy G. Stroumsa, A New Science: The Discovery of Religion in the Age of Reason (Cambridge, Mass., 2010).

156 For very recent perspectives on these questions, see “AHR Conversation: Historical Perspectives on the Circulation of Information,” American Historical Review 116, no. 5 (December 2011): 1392–1435.

157 Peter Burke, A Social History of Knowledge: From Gutenberg to Diderot (Cambridge, 2000); Burke,A Social History of Knowledge II: From the Encyclopaedia to Wikipedia (Cambridge, 2012).