Publication Date

February 1, 1993

Perspectives Section

AHA Annual Meeting

Editor’s Note: The 1992 Annual Meeting, the last of the Association’s meetings to be held in December, was attended by 4,174—the largest attendance since the 1969 meeting held in Washington, D.C. The Association’s next meeting will be held January 6-9, 1994, in San Francisco, California.


1992 Awards for Scholarly Distinction

In 1984 the Council of the AHA established an award entitled the American Historical Association Award for Scholarly Distinction. Each year the Nominating Committee recommends to the Council up to three names for the award, and the Council then selects up to three names from the list presented. Nominees are senior historians of the highest distinction in the historical profession who have spent the bulk of their professional careers in the United States. Previous awards have gone to Nettie Lee Benson. Woodrow Borah, Angie Debo, Helen G. Edmonds, Felix Gilbert, John W. Hall, Margaret Atwood Judson, Paul Oskar Kristeller, Gerhart Burian Ladner, Edmund Morgan, Benjamin Quarles, Edwin O. Reischauer, Caroline Robbins, Kenneth M. Setton, Kenneth M. Stampp, Chester G. Starr, Sylvia L. Thrupp Strayer, and Merze Tate. Joining this distinguished list are Gerda Lerner, Carl E. Schorske, and George R. Woolfolk. The following citations were read by President-elect Louise A. Tilly at the General Meeting:

Gerda Lerner has been an unflinching advocate of the capacity of history to change the course of human events. Convinced that knowledge about women’s past can play a key role in changing the consciousness of men and women in our society, she has devoted her energies to developing methodologies and theories that move the profession in new directions.

For Professor Lerner, history was her third, perhaps even her fourth, career. A1938 recipient of the “Matura” in her native Vienna, she was coerced by the Nazis into leaving the country. Arriving in the United States, she took a succession of what she later described as “typical women’s jobs” while she learned English, and then married and raised two children. Over a twenty-year period, she became an active political organizer and a creative writer. She published a moving novel, No Farewell, in 1955; collaborated with Eve Merriam on a musical called the Singing of Women, which was produced in 1956; and wrote A screenplay, Black Like Me. Not until 1959 did she resume her formal education, earning first a B.A. at the New School for Social Research in 1963, and then a Ph.D. at Columbia University in 1966. Her first historical publication, The Grimke Sisters from South Carolina: Rebels Against Slavery, appeared in 1967.

In the relatively short space of time since then, Gerda Lerner has contributed a corpus of work in the history of women that has changed the face of history in the United States. Convinced that history was “an absolute lifeline to self-recognition and to giving our life meaning,” she has dedicated herself both to innovative and resourceful research and to the training and education in women’s history not only of young scholars, but also of female activists and the public.

Her scholarly work, which began with a stubborn insistence that sources were available to study even the poorest and most subordinated of women, has stretched the boundaries of our knowledge about women’s lives and encouraged historians to ask impossible questions. At first, Professor Lerner paid attention to the American context, producing articles and books in which she placed women’s activities as institution and community builders at the center of the political struggle. Her next book, The Creation of Patriarchy, won the AHA’s Joan Kelly Prize in 1986, and moved her out of familiar turn and time. This book, which traced the emergence and development of patriarchy over more than two millennia of Western civilization, revealed patriarchy’s vulnerability to social circumstances. In an astonishing demonstration of virtuosity, Professor Lerner used literary sources and religious and archaeological artifacts to challenge traditional conceptions of the emergence of slavery, to construct new definitions of class, and to reveal new meanings of customary ideas and metaphors about women. The result has been to forge a new and persuasive synthesis that has historicized the construction of patriarchy. Professor Lerner’s .vest book, which is volume two of The Creation of Patriarchy, will be published in March 1993 by Oxford University Press and is entitled The Creation of Feminist Consciousness from the Middle Ages to 1870.

Professor Lerner’s work has long been characterized by a generosity of spirit that is evident in its second major component. The founder and director, for many years, of Sarah Lawrence College’s program in women’s history, and the initiator of the graduate women’s history program at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Gerda Lerner has devoted much of her energy to developing and disseminating tools for teaching women’s history. She has run several legendary training institutes for women leaders, for high school teachers, and for colleagues engaged in training graduate students in the field. Her work has not gone unappreciated. In 1981, she served as president of the Organization of American Historians, and in 1986, she was nominated for the presidency of the AHA.

We honor Gerda Lerner for her service to the profession and for her capacity to reach audiences far beyond the scholarly community. We honor her for her success in demonstrating, in her own words, that “women’s history is the primary tool for women’s emancipation.”

Carl Emil Schorske was born in New York City, March 15, 1915. As an undergraduate, he studied at Columbia University during the Depression of the thirties, graduating with an A.B. in 1936. Enrolled in the two-year humanities colloquium, he was exposed to teachers such as Moses Hadas, Theodoric Westbrook, Lionel Trilling, and Jacques Barzun. Barzun’s teaching of nineteenth-century intellectual history and particularly his treatment of the music and the other arts inspired Schorske most. He began graduate studies in history at Harvard in the fall of 1936, where William L. Langer, the great scholar of nineteenth-century European diplomatic history and imperialism, became his advisor. Schorske also studied Greek history with William Scott Ferguson at Harvard. He completed the master’s degree at Harvard in 1937.

Shortly before Pearl Harbor, Schorske joined the Research and Analysis Branch of the Office of Strategic Services as a naval officer. Staying in the OSS. Until 1946, he worked with a brilliant group of fellow graduate students and young scholars, many of whom went on to become leading figures in American studies of European and world affairs for the next thirty years. In 1946, Schorske resumed his graduate studies and took a position as assistant professor at Wesleyan University in Connecticut. Continuing his work begun in the OSS, he also participated in the German studies group of the Council on Foreign Relations between 1946 and 1950. Largely from that work, he published together with Hoyt Price his first book, The Problem of Germany. He completed his doctoral dissertation in 1950 on German Social Democracy, 1905–1917.That thesis became the basis for his second book, German Social Democracy, 1905-1917, published by the Harvard University Press in 1955. This pathbreaking study examined the evolution of party ideology in the contexts of the movements developing political practice and organizational structures.

After 1955, Carl Schorske’s research and writing focused on turn-of-the-century Central European intellectual history, particularly the Austrian writers, artists, architects, musicians, and psychiatrists who contributed critically to the birth of modern culture. In 1961, he published the first of a series of brilliant essays from this project, “Politics and the Psyche in Fin-de-siècle Vienna: Schnitzler and Hofmannsthal,” American Historical Review 68 (1961): 930-46.Those essays eventually led to his third book, the widely acclaimed Fin-de-siècle Vienna: Politics and Culture (Alfred A. Knopf, 1980), which won a Pulitzer Prize for nonfiction in 1981. He was also one of the first group of recipients of a John MacArthur Fellowship.

Schorske’s brilliant insights into the relations between tum-of-the-century politics and society on the one hand and emergent functionalist architecture, expressionist art, atonal music, and psychoanalysis on the other, taught a vast readership the importance of general historical development to understanding the emergence of modernist culture. His work also offered many historians of politics and society an important set of reminders about the connectedness of intellectua1life with broader political and social experience. This book has now been published in many foreign languages and has led Schorske to be invited to address a number of professional societies outside of history and to serve as historical adviser for a number of major museum exhibitions on fin-de-siècle Vienna.

Schorske taught at Wesleyan from 1946 to 1960. During that period he also visited at Harvard and Yale universities, and held a Guggenheim Fellowship from 1954-55. His courses in this period included Western civilization, various courses on nineteenth-century Europe, and modern European intellectual history. He became a much-admired teacher for several generations of Wesleyan students.

In 1960 he left Wesleyan to take up .an appointment as professor of history at the University of California, Berkeley. During nine years at Berkeley, his fame spread as a brilliant undergraduate lecturer on modem intellectual history. He also served his department for a term as chair and the campus for a time as an assistant to the chancellor for educational development engaged in projects for the renewal of the curriculum. At Berkeley, Schorske also experienced the crisis of American higher education during the 1960 in one of the major venues. He shared in those struggles, trying to uphold both the values of free inquiry in the academic community and those of the historical profession in his teaching and scholarship. Throughout his teaching career he championed the principles of free inquiry and constantly urged his colleagues to be open to new questions, new methodologies, new concepts, and new voices in the academy. In the historical profession he has been an advocate for giving greater representation to groups that have been traditionally excluded or marginalized and greater attention to their intellectual concerns. Women’s groups in the American Historical Association found him an early supporter.

The final phase of Carl Schorske’s teaching career began in 1969, when he took up an appointment as professor of history at Princeton University. There he finished his hook on Vienna, continued to teach modern European intellectual history, and became the moving spirit for a new interdisciplinary undergraduate program in European cultural studies. He encouraged his colleagues among the history faculty as well as his students to engage not merely in a dialogue between history and literature or architecture or philosophy or art history but in a common inquiry. He retired from Princeton in 1980.

Since his retirement, Schorske has made a singular contribution to the redefinition of the art museum. Both through his writing and through his involvement in international exhibitions, he has led curators to recognize the importance of reconstructing the total cultural context within which exhibited art must be understood. He is currently studying the relationship between popular music and high culture in the works of Mahler and Ives, a topic on which he presented a series of lectures at the College de France. In this ongoing work as in his earlier studies, he continues to lead scholars to pursue interdisciplinary research by his example.

For over thirty years at Wesleyan, Berkeley, and Princeton, Carl Schorske had an enormous impact on undergraduates. When at his best in lectures, his insightful interpretations of cultural innovation, his ability to draw out critical connections to political and social change, and his brilliant use of language dazzled his listeners. At Berkeley and Princeton, he also challenged and inspired graduate students with his tenacity in grappling with analytic problems and his incisive critical abilities, abilities which have never been used in a spirit of combativeness or in an attempt to close debate but rather widen the dialogue and deepen understanding of modern culture.

A native of Louisville, Kentucky, George R. Woolfolk received the B.A. degree from Louisville Municipal College and the M.A. and Ph.D. from Ohio State University and the University of Wisconsin, respectively. He joined the faculty of Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View. Texas, in 1943 where he continues to serve as professor emeritus. During his long tenure, he established an illustrious record as a research scholar, teacher, administrator, and community resource.

Professor Woolfolk has been an active member of a variety of professional historical groups including the Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History, the Southern Historical Association, the American Historical Association, the Organization of American Historians, and the Texas State Historical Association. Dr. Woolfolk has served on the Executive Council of the Texas Historical Association and the Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History. He has also held several official positions in the Southern Historical Association.

A productive scholar, Professor Woolfolk wrote several widely acclaimed hooks including the often cited The Cotton Regency: The Northern Merchants and Reconstruction, The Free Negro in Texas, and Prairie View, A Study in Public Conscience, 1878-1946. His articles and reviews have appeared in the Journal of Negro History, the Social Science Quarterly, the Wisconsin Review of History, the Journal of Negro Education, Mid-America Historical Review, The Journal of Southern History, and other publications. He was also a contributor to the Waller County Historical Commission’s A History of Waller County. Presently Dr. Woolfolk is completing a major work on economic development in antebellum Texas.

Throughout Texas he is known for both his scholarship and his community service. He was gubernatorial appointee to the American Revolution Bicentennial Commission of Texas (1970-78) and to the Texas Historical Document Advisory Board in 1982. He has also served on the Board of Editors of the Handbook of Texas and as technical adviser to the Waller County Historical Commission. He was winner of the Minnie Stevens Piper Professor Award in 1973. Perhaps Professor Woolfolk’s greatest contribution lies in his efforts to develop a generation of historians to succeed his own. At Prairie View, he supervised more than fifty graduate theses. Many of those students went on to productive careers in the public schools of the region while others pursued further graduate study.

While pursuing a career as a teacher and scholar, Dr. Woolfolk also served in various administrative positions. He served as chair of the History Department and later as head of the Division of Social and Political Science. In addition to all of the concrete attributes already noted, Professor Woolfolk enjoys a reputation among his peers and his students as a first class, honorable person who uses his talents in the interest of human progress.

Eugene Asher Distinguished Teaching Award

While the AHA has traditionally recognized outstanding scholarship, for over a hundred years there was no prize honoring teaching. In 1986 the AHA’s Teaching Division recommended and the Council approved the establishment of an annual award to recognize both excellence in teaching and knowledge of the subject of history. The award is given jointly by the AHA and the Society for History Education (SHE) and is named for the late Eugene Asher, former executive secretary of SHE and for decades a central figure in efforts to improve the quality of history teaching. The Teaching Division oversees the selection of the recipient of the award; nominations are submitted by the previous year’s book-prize winners. Each is invited to nominate one of his or her teachers, who by inspirational impact and excellence encouraged that individual to study history. Eligible for consideration are school, undergraduate, and graduate instructors.

Wayne Altree, Newton South High School, Newton, Massachusetts, was awarded the 1992 Asher Award at The AHA’s General Meeting in Washington, D.C.. Mr. Altree was nominated by Andrew Gordon, Duke University, Davis, recipient of the 1991 Fairbank Prize. Dr. Gordon read portions of his nomination letter at the Presentation Ceremony:

“Oddly enough, I have never had a regular class with Mr. Altree in my three years at Newton South High School, where he taught and served as director of social studies. Nonetheless, I felt his influence in many ways. Tonight I will mention just a couple.

The most important impact came in the summer of 1969. Mr. Altree was leading a summer school of the Mount Hermon School in western Massachusetts. By May, too few students had enrolled, so Mr. Altree started recruiting via Newton’s social studies classes. I had never thought seriously about Japan in my life, but the opportunity sounded exciting (especially as a female classmate whom I found very intriguing had also signed up). Five weeks later I found myself on the Mount Hermon Campus for a ten day orientation, before leaving for eight weeks in Japan. Our first class was also my first classroom encounter with Mr. Altree, where his stern opening remarks were something along these lines: ‘Your tuition payment for this program is just a portion of the total cost. You may wonder why Mount Hermon is subsidizing a bunch of high school kids traveling to Japan. The school is making an investment, expecting that one or two of you will someday become leaders in the study of Japan in this country.’ I retain a vivid memory of confidently thinking, ‘that’s silly. He definitely means one of the others.’

“That summer was a decisive time in my life. Mr. Altree’s constant admonitions to us to think for ourselves about the significance of our experiences, and his refusal to spoon feed us ‘answers’ about Japanese society or history (despite our belief in his omniscience and our insistence that he tell us ‘what’s really going on’), played a major role in awakening my intellectual curiosity. Mr. Altree’s impact continued after our return. Over the course of the summer, he somehow identified me as one of the students who was supposed to repay Mount Hermon’s investment. He supervised me in an independent study course on Chinese history in my senior year of high school, after the trip. And he consistently encouraged me to continue studying Asia at college.

In addition to his insistence that students find answers for themselves, I believe that the heart of his success as a teacher lay in the very high standards he held for both himself and students, and the respect he gave our endeavors. The instance that made this clearest to me was his response to my Harvard undergraduate thesis. Proud of the result (a study of U.S. occupation policy on Japan’s war reparations) I sent him a copy, fully expecting praise for my achievement. I received a tough critique of my over-reliance on ‘undergraduate clichés’ about capitalism in my analysis, and my excessively ornate, wordy writing style. I was crestfallen at first, but later came to realize that his response was more honest accurate and helpful than the praise of my Harvard professors. A month or so later, he sent a letter saying that he might have been too harsh on the thesis, but that he wanted to convey the importance of maintaining the highest possible standards for my work.

“It is an honor and pleasure to introduce Wayne Altree.”

Robert A. Blackey, California State University, San Bernardino, and vice president of the Teaching Division, announced awards for honorable mention for 1992: Emilia Viottia da Costa, Yale University, John Gillis, Rutgers University; William E. Leuchtenburg, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; and Randolph Starn, University of California, Berkeley.

Nancy Lyman Roelker Mentorship Award

In recognition of Nancy Lyman Roelker’s role as a teacher, scholar, and committed member of the historical profession, and on the occasion of her 75th birthday, friends, colleagues, and former students established The Nancy Lyman Roelker Mentorship Award. The annual award recognizes and encourages a special quality exemplified by Professor Roelker through the human component in her teaching of history.

Often called “companionate mentoring,” it encompasses a belief in the value of the study of history and a commitment to and a love of teaching it to students regardless of age or career goals. Advising is an essential component, but it also combines a consistent personal commitment by the mentor to the student as a person. Offering a human alternative, frequently in quiet and unacknowledged ways, mentors like Professor Roelker believe that the essence of history lies in its human scope. With this award, the American Historical Association attests to the special role of mentors to the future of the historical profession.

The Award is offered on a three-year cycle to avoid competition among different levels offacu1tymentorship. Nominations for The 1992 prize were for the graduate level.

The first Nancy Lyman Roelker Mentorship Award was conferred on William J. Bouwsma of the University of California, Berkeley. President-elect Tilly read the following citation, in the words of Dr. Bouwsma’s students who spoke of the gifts he bestowed on them over the years:

Your exemplary scholarship in early modem European history inspired them “to define an intellectual enterprise that could be both honest and ambitious in scope” and challenged each one “to develop to the utmost his or her potential as a historian.”

Your teaching ”never failed to highlight the pleasure and value of discovery.” Ever “open to other perspectives,” you guided, probed, and clarified, making your “students feel competent and independent.”

Your criticism was constructive and copious, the margins of your students’ manuscripts “crowded with your small, neat handwriting and perceptive comments,” You did the same for others who were not your students, and you continued to do so for years, even for those who had “fallen by the wayside” of a conventional professional career.

Your support was unfailing but “never overbearing,” setting your own students “free to follow their own intellectual direction, pose their own questions, and draw their own conclusions.” When it came time for a Festschrift, there were more volunteers than there was space, and every one of their considerable number indicated “the existence of a special relationship with Bill.”

For your steadfastness and humanity as historian and as friend, we are honored to confer on you the first Nancy Lyman Roelker Mentorship Award, both as a personal tribute and as a model for your profession.

Honorary Foreign Member

At its second annual meeting in Saratoga in 1885, the newly appointed Committee on Nominations for Honorary Membership introduced a resolution, which was adopted, that appointed Leopold von Ranke as the first honorary foreign member. In the intervening 107 years, only seventy-eight individuals have been so honored. Previously selected biennially, selection is now made annually in honoring a foreign scholar who is distinguished in his or her field and who has “notably aided the work of American historians.”

President-elect Tilly announced the addition of Yoshinobu Shiba of Japan to the list of twenty living honorary members.

Yoshinobu Shiba, emeritus, Tokyo University, is an internationally recognized historian of imperial China. His career covers two eras of Japanese historical scholarship on medieval Chinese economic and social history. Professor Shiba is considered by those in his field to be one of the greatest living Japanese historians of China and also the greatest living historian of any nationality on the pivotal Song era of Chinese history. His influence on American historians of China has been immense and multifaceted, and he has proven enormously generous with his time in offering personal assistance and guidance to younger scholars from the United States. His works have long been available in English and he is also fluent in that language. His participation at major conferences for which English has been the working language have made him a familiar and friendly presence among American scholars and students. His consideration and human concern for the young scholar has been extraordinary throughout his career. The AHA is pleased to confer the 1992 honorary foreign membership to Professor Shiba in recognition of his towering intellectual achievement in Chinese history and also for his powerful, positive influence on China historians in this country.

1992 Book Awards

At the annual meeting in Washington, D.C., the following prizes were announced for the year 1992. The committee’s citations are recorded below:

Herbert Baxter Adams Prize

Suzanne M. Desan, University of Wisconsin, Madison, for Reclaiming the Sacred: Religious and Popular Politics in Revolutionary France, Cornell University Press (1990).

Focusing on the department of the Yonne, Reclaiming the Sacred challenges a cliché inherited from the French Revolution itself-that Catholicism and counter-revolution went hand in hand. Desan’s careful archival investigations reveal a richness of popular religious culture and practice (released by the de-Christianizing movement in Year II) and help explain why the Yonne remained both Catholic and revolutionary. The result is a substantial reappraisal of the nature of religious resistance to secularization during the Revolution.

George Louis Beer Prize

Nicole T. Jordan, University of Illinois at Chicago, for The Popular From and Central Europe: The Dilemmas of French Impotence, 1918-1940, Cambridge University Press (1992). Widely researched in the archives of France, Britain, and the United States, Nicole Jordan’s The Popular Front and Central Europe constitutes a definite revision of our understanding of the foreign policy of Leon Blum-embedded in a detailed and careful assessment of French alliance policy with Italy and its eastern European allies. Mindful of the intent of the founders of the prize to give special consideration to the work of emerging scholars, the 1992 committee wishes to recognize by this award a first book of significance for history of twentieth-century Europe.

Albert J. Beveridge Award

Richard White, University of Washington for The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region 1650-1815, Cambridge University Press (1991). Challenging and at times veritably poetic, Richard White’s The Middle Ground establishes a meaningful new framework for the analysis of Indian-white relations. Rather than setting up easy victim-exploiter categories or glorifying Native American resistance, White examines how violence, cultural innovation, confrontation, accommodation worked on the ground, in specific interactions and conflicts between and within settler and indigenous groups. The author views Native Americans and Europeans soberly, showing the deep divisions on each side in relation to questions of power, legitimacy, and meaning

By resisting the temptation to glorify or satanize either side. White presents a deep, humane and enduring picture of Native American heroism in the face of increasingly unviable odds. His conceptualization of the “middle ground,” and of the role of the state in constructing ethnicity, also represent contributions of lasting value to our understanding of Indian-white relations throughout the Americas. The Middle Ground thus is a most worthy recipient of the 1992 Beveridge Award.

Paul Birdsall Prize

Dennis E. Showalter, Colorado College, for Tannenberg: Clash of Empires, Archon/The Shoe String Press (1991). Exhaustively researched and portrayed with arresting clarity, it is the contribution of Dennis Showalter’s Tannenberg: The Clash of Empires to place in proper military) and diplomatic historical context the epic first encounter of what German Chancellor Bethmann-Holweg called in 1914 the roll of the iron dice—the start of the war. Momentous in its implications for German military policy in that war and much later, it was not merely a German victory over tsarist Russia but also the only nonattritional major victory achieved by a major power in any major theater of the 1914-1918 struggle. Showalter links diplomatic processes to the deadly ends-ways-means calculation that comprises the realm of military strategy, and elucidates key factors bearing on the tactical and the operational levels of war as well. This work is indeed a major contribution to our understanding of European military and strategic history since 1870.

James Henry Breasted Prize

Glen W. Bowersock, Institute for Advanced Study, for Hellenism in Late Antiquity, University of Michigan Press (1990). Hellenism is the central theme of the history of the eastern, Mediterranean for the millennium that followed the conquests of Alexander the Great. Glen Bowersock’s elegantly and engagingly written Jerome Lectures put forth a highly original view of Hellenism in late antiquity. The Greek and pagan character and language of Hellenism were no obstacle to its service as the medium for Christianity and, equally, as the vehicle for the indigenous cultures of the Levant. Bowersock argues that the divides between pagan and Christian, urban and rural, and Greek and native were very different from what has usually been thought. Even in the countryside, the Greek language and many Greek forms of expression served to rescue indigenous ways of life and thought from a purely local existence and enabled them to be exported throughout the East. Throughout, the author deploys literature, ritual, art, and archaeology with a rare integrative mastery. Equally, his command of the sources crosses the boundaries of Greek and Semitic documentation to bring the reader to an understanding of a world rarely seen as whole.

John K. Fairbank Prize

Kathryn Bernhardt, University of California, Los Angeles for Rents, Taxes, and Peasant Resistance: The Lower Yangzi Region, 1840—1950, Stanford University Press (1992). Professor Bernhardt’s Rents, Taxes, and Peasant Resistance is a model monograph. Beautifully researched and written, its close and careful focus transforms the reader’s view of China’s Lower Yangzi region. The author has pulled together a powerful reinterpretation of over a century of economic, social, and political history. Her thoughtful analysis throws new light on evolving state-society relations in the process of modern state-society relations in the process of modern state formation during the early twentieth century.

Carter J. Eckert, Harvard University, for Offspring of Empire: The Ko-ch’ ang Kims and the Colonial Origins of Korean Capitalism, 1876–1945, University of Washington Press (1991). Dr. Eckert’s Offspring of Empire is a highly original and clearly written study of economic development under colonial conditions. Although the weight of the analysis is on the bourgeoisie, it is unusual to find an author who comes so close to giving equal consideration to labor and management history. Eckert reconstructs the tragedy of modern Korean history without sliding into clichés or simple condemnation, and reminds us of the long shadow of imperialism in the twentieth century.

Herbert Feis Award

James A. Smith, The Howard Gilman Foundation, for The Idea Brokers: Think Tanks and the Rise of the New Policy Elite, The Free Press (1991). James Smith’s The Idea Brokers skillfully and evenhandedly unites past and present, social. intellectual, and institutional history in an historically informed and clearly written account of the rise of an elite of public policy experts and the institutions that nourish them in the United States, from the tum of the century to the present.

Leo Gershoy Award

Joseph M. Levine, Syracuse University, for The Battle of the Books: History and Literature in the Augustan Age, Cornell University Press (1991). In this beautifully written book, Joseph Levine reconstructs the quarrel between the ancients and the modems in England between 1690 and the 17305, a debate which involved such men as William Wotton, Richard Bentley, Jonathan Swift, and Alexander pope. By illuminating a neglected episode in the history of scholarship, Professor Levine reveals a fundamental tension within Augustan culture regarding the importance and usefulness of the humanities. This lucid and witty study is intellectual and cultural history of the highest caliber.

Joan Kelly Memorial Prize

Victoria de Grazia, Rutgers University, for How Fascism Ruled Women. Italy, 1922-1945, University of California Press (1992). This wide-ranging and superbly accomplished study explores the diversity of women’s experiences under Italian fascism, moving from high politics to popular culture, from the church to the workplace. With impressive depth and insight, and avoiding simplistic generalizations and easy answers, de Grazia explains the diversity and ambivalence of women’s lives in an era marked not only by the social and political impact of fascist dictatorship, but also by significant changes in mass culture and the public sphere. Set in a comparative framework that constantly tests the Italian experience against that of other industrial societies, de Grazia’s book forces the reader to rethink some of the central concepts of recent feminist history. It is a model of engaged and theoretically informed feminist scholarship, as sophisticated intellectually as it is lucid in exposition.

Littleton-Griswold Prize

Herbert Hovenkamp, University of Iowa, for Enterprise and American Law 1836-1937, Harvard University Press (1991). Herbert Hovenkamp’s Enterprise and American Law is a bold, revisionist study that demonstrates the influence of economic theory on labor law during the seminal period in the rise of the American corporation. One of the most profound insights of this gracefully written and forcefully argued book is the close connection that it makes between the rise of the doctrine of substantive due process of law and the evolution of classical economic theory of free markets. In. making this connection, Professor Hovenkamp has shown how both public and private law served to structure the rapid economic expansion that occurred from the mid-nineteenth to the mid-twentieth centuries. No student of the era will again be able to interpret the interaction of constitutionalism, law, and economics without taking account of Hovenkamp’s powerful and persuasive argument. The book is, for that reason, a milestone in the development of American legal history.

Howard R. Marraro Prize

Samuel Y. Edgerton, Jr., Williams College, for The Heritage of Giollo’s Geometry: Art and Science on the Eve of the Scientific Revolution, Cornell University Press (1991). This book will encourage scholars and teachers to think in new ways about the Renaissance, the scientific revolution, and the West. Its physical appearance should become a model for texts incorporating visual materials with historical narrative. For its innovative and interdisciplinary examination of the linkages among science, artistic representation, cognition, and culture, the AHA awards its 1992 Marraro Prize to Samuel Edgerton’s The Heritage of Giollo’ s Geometry.

Premio del Rey Prize

Paul H. Freedman, Vanderbilt University, for The Origins of Peasant Servitude in Medieval Catalonia, Cambridge University Press (1991). This book is an exceptionally well written and documented account of three centuries of peasantry in Catalonia. By combining a remarkable knowledge of medieval law with extensive original research in archives, the author reveals an unusual ability to place the Catalan experience, within the more general European context, and thereby makes a significant contribution to medieval social history.

James Harvey Robinson Prize

The Chicago Historical Society, for its teacher handbook A House Divided: America in the Age of Lincoln (1990). The 1992 Robinson Prize winner exemplifies the spirit of the award by utilizing various techniques for exploring history. Designed as a companion for the Chicago Historical Society’s exhibition of the same name it does far more than simply walk through exhibit. Written for, and usable by, nearly all, from elementary through adult it provides background, worksheets, and questions critical thinking. An excellent section focuses on how to read and interpret artifacts, and includes material for practice sessions prior to visiting the exhibit. The materials show a sensitivity for Indians, women, black resistance to slavery, northern racism, daily life, and much more. It includes primary sour material, superb narrative, and an excellent bibliography. A House Divided is an example of how any museum should develop material to support an exhibit.

Albert B. Corey Prize

The Corey Prize is awarded biennially in conjunction with the Canadian Historical Association, and announced in alternate years at the CHA and AHA annual meetings. The 1992 Corey Prize was awarded at the CHA’s 71st annual meeting in Prince Edward Island, May 29-June 1, 1992. It was awarded to Richard White, University of Washington, for The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, Republics in the Great Lakes Regions, 1650-1815, Cambridge University Press (1991).

It is appropriate for the 500th anniversary of contact between native peoples and Europeans that the Corey Prize be awarded to an author who has written a brilliant and original synthesis of two centuries of Indian-European interaction. The book incorporates work in many archives as well as drawing skillfully on anthropological, archaeological, and folkloric evidence. The author argues that native peoples and Europeans negotiated a “middle ground” in which both groups mutually constructed a world very different from the parent cultures. The Middle Ground is a riveting piece of scholarship that exhibits the be the historian’s craft and should be read by non-specialists as well as specialists.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. Attribution must provide author name, article title, Perspectives on History, date of publication, and a link to this page. This license applies only to the article, not to text or images used here by permission.