Publication Date

November 1, 2005

The 120th annual meeting will feature 10 precirculated paper sessions. These sessions, introduced as part of the recent reforms to the annual meeting, are so designated in the printed annual meeting Program above the title of the session. The online version of theProgram at the AHA web site will provide a special page listing all the precirculated paper sessions (at and will also provide direct links to the papers as they are posted online.

For meeting attendees: If you are interested in attending one of the precirculated paper sessions, please check the web site starting around December 1, as staff will start posting the papers as they are received. They will be linked both from the page listing the precirculated poster sessions (indicated above) and from the specific listing for the session. A message will be sent to members in early December noting the availability of papers online.

For authors submitting precirculated papers: To submit a paper for posting, please submit an electronic copy to by December 1. Ideally, the papers should be submitted as Adobe PDF files with fonts and images embedded. We can also accept Microsoft Word and RTF files, Corel WordPerfect documents, as well as simple text files.

Please be advised that files will be posted as received and will not be copyedited or otherwise revised before posting. If, due to cross-platform compatibility issues there is some reflow in the formatting, staff will not be able to correct this before posting. If you prefer that we direct readers to a page on your faculty or institutional web site, please submit the link by the same date.

While presenters using this format are encouraged to make use of its full potential—such as integrating graphs and images into their papers—they are reminded that the applicable laws of copyright and fair use apply even for this limited audience.

Authors will maintain copyright of the essays and are responsible for proper citation and use of all other materials. Since these papers are posted solely to facilitate discussion at the meeting, and in order to protect the integrity of the authors’ work, the papers will be taken off the site five days after the meeting.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. Attribution must provide author name, article title, Perspectives on History, date of publication, and a link to this page. This license applies only to the article, not to text or images used here by permission.