Publication Date

November 1, 1995

Editor’s Note: Because of space limitations we are not able to publish in this issue of Perspectives all of the obituaries that we have received. We will publish the remainder in the December or January issues.

Nancy Nichols Barker

Nancy Nichols Barker, Oliver H. Radkey Regents Professor of History at the University of Texas at Austin, died on March 30, 1994, after a two-year battle with cancer. A memorial service was held at the French Legation Museum in Austin, Texas, on May 16.

Professor Barker was born in Mount Vernon, New York, in 1925. She received her B.A. from Vassar College, and her M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. Her entire teaching career was spent at the University of Texas at Austin, where she began as a lecturer in history in 1955, becoming a full professor in 1972 and Radkey Regents Professor in 1990.

Professor Barker's early research interests focused on 19th-century France and gradually pushed outward to include the French influence in Mexico and Texas, backward in time to the period of Louis XIV, and eventually across European boundaries to England and Russia. Her first book, Distaff Diplomacy: The Empress Eugenie and the Foreign Policy of the Second Empire (1969), was followed in 1979 by The French Experience in Mexico, 1821-1861: A History of Constant Misunderstanding, which received the Book Award of the French Colonial Historical Association, and then Brother to the Sun King: Philippe, Duke of Orleans, which won the 1989 AHA Leo Gershoy award. She was coeditor, with Marvin L. Brown, Jr., of Diplomacy inthe Age of Nationalism: Essays in Honor of Lynn Marshall Case (1971), and the editor and translator of the two-volume French Legation, in Texas (1971, 1973), which won the Gilbert Chinard Prize and the Summerfield G. Roberts Award. At the time of her death, she was working on a book for which she was learning Russian, to be entitled “Revolution and the Royal Consort: The Cases of Henrietta Maria, Marie Antoinette, and Alexandra Feodorovna.” An article with the same title, completed shortly before her death, is being prepared for publication by several of her colleagues and former students.

Professor Barker was also a highly respected teacher, whose courses on the French Revolution and Napoleon and on 19th-century Europe were both demanding and very popular. As a mentor for graduate students, as well as for junior colleagues and beginning scholars who were not directly her students, she was unfailingly supportive and accessible, forthright, and constructively critical. Her contributions were always sought after by academic organizations, including the Society for French Historical Studies, the Western Society for French History, the American Historical Association, and the Southern Historical Association, and her papers and commentaries were always carefully listened to and reflected upon. Nancy was also a tough and courageous person and a loyal friend; she will be missed by all those who knew her. A Barker Prize Fund to honor her memory has been established in the history department at the University of Texas at Austin.

Bette W. Oliver
University of Texas at Austin

Ellery Schalk
University of Texas at El Paso

Harold C. Deutsch

Harold C. Deutsch was born in Milwaukee in 1904. He received his A.B. from the University of Wisconsin in 1924 and the A.M. a year later. Transferring to Harvard University, he completed a second M.A. in 1927 and was granted the Ph.D. in 1929. His original academic specialty was French history; his first monograph was The Genesis of Napoleonic Imperialism (1938). In 1929 Harold joined the faculty of the University of Minnesota, where he spent the first stage of his distinguished career, rising to full professor and serving as chair of the history department from 1960 to 1966.

In addition to launching many doctoral candidates, Harold established a reputation as a teacher that endures to this day in university legend. His students remember classes and seminars meticulously prepared, dynamically presented, and consistently updated. He was among the first professors to utilize electronics; beginning in the early 1960s, his consistently popular course on World War II was offered on television. Yet he remained a master of personal contact, demonstrating by example to successive generations of teaching assistants the importance of the classroom to the scholar.

Harold's interest in the Third Reich began with a year spent in Europe as a Social Science Research Fellow in 1935-36. During that time he began cultivating the acquaintance of German officers and politicians who had participated in World War J. Assigned to the Office of Strategic Service, Harold served as chief of its research and analysis branch in Paris and Germany during 1944 and 1945. In 1945 he was a member of the State Department's Special Interrogation Mission, collecting information on the Third Reich from high-level participants and establishing the comprehensive network of contacts and friendships that made him a world authority on the human dynamics of Nazi Germany. His definitive studies of the military opposition, The Conspiracy against Hitler in the Twilight War (1968) and Hitler and His Generals: The Hidden Crisis, January—June 1938 (1974), were among the major academic products of this stage of his career.

At a period when even the most distinguished scholars are usually content to rest somewhat on their laurels, Harold Deutsch began a new professional phase. Retiring from the University of Minnesota in 1972, he joined in 1974 the faculty of the U.S. Army War College. New generations of students, this time military officers, profited from his insight. Intellectually, he played a major role in integrating into the general history of World War II information made available with the revelation of ULTRA secret, the Allied code-breaking effort. Even before his second retirement from the War College, Harold was a familiar participant in academic conferences, where his incisive questions vitalized panels as much as his captivating personality enlivened social hours. He was one of the original members of the American Military Institute. When its successor organization, the Society of Military History, honored him with its Samuel Elliott Morison Award in 1994, this was no more than token acknowledgment of a career that remains an inspiration to his many friends and colleagues. Harold died on May 15, 1995. He will be greatly missed.

Dennis E. Showalter
Department of History
Colorado College

Trevor N. Dupuy

Col. Trevor Nevitt Dupuy (USA, Ret.) died in Mclean, Virginia, on June 5 1995. He was born on Staten Island, New York, on May 3, 1916, the son of Richard Ernest and Laura (Nevitt) Dupuy. His education included attendance at St. Peter's College (1933-34), and then at the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, from which he graduated with a B.S. in June 1938. Commissioned as a second lieutenant of field artillery, he served in the continental United States and in Burma during World War II. In Burma for 18 months (1943-45), he commanded a U.S. field artillery battalion, a Chinese artillery group, and the artillery of the British 36th Infantry Division, accumulating more combat time in-theater than any other American. He also won several decorations for gallantry, including the legion of Merit, Bronze Star with combat V, Air Medal, the British Distinguished Service Cross, and the Chinese Cloud and Banner (two grades).

Late in World War II, then-Lt. Col. Dupuy returned to Washington, D.C., to serve on the War Department General Staff (OPD) and the Department of the Army General Staff. After the war, he served with the original Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe staff under General Eisenhower. He graduated from the Joint Services Staff College (1949), and was promoted to colonel (1953). Col. Dupuy taught military science and tactics at Harvard University (1952-56), and was part of the original Defense Studies faculty there (1954-56). He went on to direct the military history program at Oh1O State University (1956-57), and following his retirement from the Army in 1958, he accepted a visiting professorship in international relations at Rangoon University (1959-60).

Returning to the United States, he was a member of the international studies division at the Institute for Defense Analysis (1960-62). He then founded his own research organization, Historical Evaluation and Research Organization (HERO) in 1962, which continued to function under several other organizations until 1992. Col. Dupuy was president of the Board of Directors of T.N. Dupuy Associates (1971-83), and president and chair of the Board of Directors of Data Memory Systems (1983-90). He was also president of HERO-TNDA (1990-92), and then president and chair of the board of the Dupuy Institute (TDI), from 1990 until his death.

During his career he wrote over 100 books, including To the Colors (with R. Ernest Dupuy) (1942); Brave Men and Great Captains (1960 and 1984); Military History of World War II, 19 vols. (1962-65); Encyclopedia of Military History (with R. Ernest Dupuy) (1972); A Genius for War: The German Army and General Staff, 1807-1945, (1977 and 1984); Attrition: Forecasting Battle Casualties and Equipment Losses in Modern War (1990); and Hitler's Last Gamble: The Battle of the Bulge, December 1944-January 1945 (1994).

David L. Bongard
Dupuy Institute

Ragnhild Hatton

Ragnhild Hatton, professor of history at the London School of Economics and the first woman to be elected an honorary foreign member of the American Historical Association, died May 16, 1995, at her home in London. She was 82.

Born Ragnhild Marie Rickheim-Hanssen in Bergen, Norway, she received her master's degree from the University of Oslo in 1936, and in the same year she moved to England, where she married Harry Hatton, a businessman who in later life became a mathematics teacher. During World War II, she performed valuable services for her adopted country as an interpreter, translator, and broadcaster in the Norwegian language. After the war, encouraged by her graduate advisers, G. J. Renier and Mark Thomson of University College, London, she completed a doctoral dissertation on Anglo-Dutch relations in the early 18th century and began her teaching career as an assistant lecturer at the London School of Economics. In 1968 she was named professor of international history at the same institution. In the 1970s she served as chair of her department and dean of the Faculty of Economics and Political Science at the London School of Economics. She retired in 1980 Harry Hatton died in 1989.

Possessed of prodigious energy, Ragnhild Hatton confided that she rose at four in the morning to write for two or three hours, undisturbed by family (the Hattons had two sons) or university committees. These early morning sessions led to the publication of her revised doctoral dissertation, a series of articles on European diplomacy, MO chapters in the New Cambridge Modern History, and a reevaluation of the reign of Louis XIV. In 1968 she published a magisterial biography of Charles XII of Sweden, which was based on extensive archival research and a formidable knowledge of languages, including Russian and Turkish. Overcoming what she called the inhibiting influence and hazards of biography, she portrayed Charles as a survivor, much like herself, who possessed the stoic virtues of endurance, loyalty, and acceptance of responsibility.

Turning to a study of Louis XIV and his policies, she published two books on the Sun King, Europe in the Age of Louis XIV (1969), and Louis XIV and His World (1972). In these works, she joined what John Kenyon called “the new wave” of scholars, who pictured Louis XIV’s foreign policies as largely defensive, aimed at combating encirclement and at rounding off France’s vulnerable frontiers. Professor Hatton’s last major work was a biography, George I: Elector and His King (1978), in which she explored in detail George’s career in Germany as well as in England.

Like the first honorary foreign member of the AHA, Leopold von Ranke, Ragnhild Hatton believed in the efficacy of the seminar method. Scholars from Europe and the Americas sought out her bimonthly seminars on early modem diplomacy held at the Institute of Historical Research, London, where under her benevolent prodding, ideas were exchanged, hypotheses tested, and adventures (and misadventures) in the archives relished.

Acquaintance with American scholars led to visiting professorships at UCLA, Northern Arizona University, the University of Kansas, and Ohio State University. It was in 1979 that she was elected an honorary foreign member of the AHA, and in 1985 she was awarded a Doctor of Humane Letters from Ohio State University. In Europe, she was named a Knight of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav (1983), a commander of the Swedish Royal Order of the Northern Star (1986), and a Senior Fellow of the British Academy (1993).

Ragnhild Hatton's keen sense of humor and fair play, unwavering dedication to scholarship, and general enjoyment of life will be missed on both sides of the Atlantic.

John C. Rule
Ohio State University

Edward P. Lilly

The death of Edward Paul Lilly on December 1, 1994, brought to a close a long career devoted to American history and to the study f psychological warfare. Born in Brooklyn, New York, Lilly received his W1dergraduate education at the College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, Massachusetts, and graduated magna cum laude in 1932. By this time he had decided to become a professional historian, and he completed his M.A. (1933) and Ph.D. (1936) degrees at Catholic University of America, in Washington, D.C. His doctoral dissertation, Colonial Agents ofNew York and New Jersey, was published by the Catholic University of America Press in 1937. After graduation he was an instructor in history at Loyola University of Chicago from 1936 to 1939. Postdoctoral research at Yale University, and the award of a Penfield Fellowship by Catholic University of America for study in Great Britain followed.

The outbreak of World War II made it impossible for him to study abroad, so he continued his researches at Yale University and won a Stirling Fellowship that enabled him to finish his work. In the fall of 1940 he joined the faculty of the Catholic University as an assistant professor. During World War II an Army Specialized Training Program was established at the university and Dr. Lilly became its director. In 1944 he took a leave of absence from teaching to become a special assistant to Elmer Davis, the director of the Office of War Information, a World War II government agency.

After the war he transferred to the staff of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, where he became a special consultant on psychological warfare. He continued to teach at Catholic University on a part-time bash' from 1946 to 1952, and gave lectures to Air Force officers at Georgetown University on political and psychological warfare from 1948 to 1950. Between 1948 and 1951 he lectured on psychological warfare at the Army War College, the Naval Intelligence School, and a t NATO headquarters at Norfolk, Virginia.

During these years he wrote a "History of American Psychological Warfare in World Wars I and II," a typescript classified study, and "American Psycholohrica1 Operations, 1946-1951," an unpublished manuscript used extensively for background briefings at the Departments of Defense and State, the USIA, and the CIA. In 1952 he joined the National Security Council and served as a planning officer on the Psychological Strategy Board and a, deputy executive assistant in the Operations Coordination Board. Prior to his retirement from the government in 1965 he wrote two-thirds of a manuscript titled "Operational Coordination during the Cold War, 1947-1961," which was to be published in 1966.

Following his retirement from government service, Dr. Lilly taught in the graduate school of arts and sciences at St. John's University, in Queens, New York, from 1966 to 1969. While there, he wrote "Psychological Strategy and Its Predecessors: Foreign Policy Coordination, 1938-53," which was published in Studies in Modern History, by the St. John’s University Press in 1968. When he returned to Washington, D.C, Lilly joined the faculty of the Washington Technical Institute, which became a part of the University of the District of Columbia in 1976. While there, he organized a chapter of the American Teachers Federation and became its president. Professor Lilly retired from teaching in 1977.

Throughout his career Lilly maintained an active interest in the historical profession. He was a longtime member of the American Historical Association and the American Catholic Historical Association. In his later years he was stricken with Alzheimer's disease. His marriage to Nancy M. (Jones) Lilly lasted 56 years, and he is survived by 10 children, 49 grandchildren, and 6 great-grandchildren.

Harold D. Langley
Catholic University of America

Helen Gray Edmonds

Dr. Helen G. Edmonds died on May 9, 1995, in Durham, N.C Dr. Edmonds was born in Lawrenceville, Virginia. Her earliest training was at Saint Paul's High School and Junior College. She received her AB. degree from Morgan State College (1933) and her M.A. (1938) and Ph.D. (1946) degrees from Ohio State University.

A dedicated educator, Dr. Edmonds began her teaching career at the Virginia Theological Seminary and College in Lynchburg, Virginia. After a year, she returned to her alma mater, Saint Paul's College, and served as an instructor of history and English for five years. President James E. Shepard recruited her as a faculty member at North Carolina College—now North Carolina Central University (NCCU)—in the spring of 1941. From that time until her retirement in 1977, Dr. Edmonds served NCCU in many capacities: professor of history, adviser to the Drama Club, chair of the Department of History, dean of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, a member of the Interim Committee for the Administration of the university, and author of NCCU's Truth and Service Ceremony. Her service to the university did not cease with her retirement. She was appointed Distinguished Professor of History, she served on the NCCU Board of Trustees, was appointed Trustee Emerita when her term expired, and was a mentor to the chancellors who were appointed after her retirement.

Though her primary employment in academe was at North Carolina Central University, Dr. Edmonds served as visiting professor or lecturer at more than 100 institutions of higher learning in the United States and abroad. In recognition of her outstanding accomplishments in higher education, she received numerous honors and awards, including the O. Max Gamer Award, the William Hugh McEniry Award, and, in 1988, the AHA Award for Scholarly Distinction. With all these honors, Dr. Edmonds saw her greatest honor as that of being mentor and adviser to her history students. She boasted that her greatest accomplishment was the number of students whom she had guided through the process of receiving their degrees—more than 30 in history and others in related fields.

Dr. Helen Edmonds, a black woman of high achievement, was a most "uncommon" person. She was much more than a teacher and a historian. Her intellect, her spirit, her compassion, and her outreach merged and extended far beyond her chosen discipline to enrich the world. She said of her life, "I have merely been a part of a goodly company. I have never traveled tile high road alone."

Sylvia Jacobs
Department of History and Social Science
North Carolina Central University

Sir Geoffrey Elton

With the death of Sir Geoffrey Elton in Cambridge on December 4, 1994, the British historical profession lost one of its commanding figures. Elton was a controversial, combative historian who fought, not only in defense of his interpretation of particular points of substance, but as the jealous guardian of what he believed to be the historian's proper objective and the means of attaining it. He [the historian] should stick to his last, essentially "past politics," scorning modish fads and all interdisciplinary temptations, respectful of the past as something which really happened and which could be recovered from the prime documentary record. His penultimate book was called Return to Essentials (1991).

If Return to Essentials was Elton’s last book but one (of more than 20, not to speak of 60 or 70 articles and essays), his last book was The English (1992), a kind of celebration of the unique and precious characteristics of his adopted country-for Elton first saw the coast of England at the age of 17, when he spoke not a word of English. He was born Gottfried Ehrenberg, the son of a distinguished German classicist and ancient historian, and he grew up and had his schooling in Prague.

The young Gottfried Ehrenberg became a pupil-teacher in a school in North Wales, read for an external degree of London University, and then joined the British army, which required him to change his name. Hence Geoffrey Rudolph Elton.

Elton began postgraduate research at the London Institute of Historical Research under the guidance of the Elizabethan historian J. E. (later Sir John) Neale. Neale had been the pupil of A F. Pollard, and Pollard's departure from the scene left vacant the reign of Henry VIII, which Elton proceeded to appropriate, mining the vast archive left behind by Henry VIII's fallen minister, Thomas Cromwell. In a succession of monographs, beginning with The Tudor Revolution in Government (1953), Elton wrote of a Cromwell who personally engineered the formation of the English state as a modern rather than medieval polity, and by rational, legal, and above all parliamentary means. The grand thesis was contested, first in the 1960s and later by former pupils in the 1980s, but Elton’s view of the matter never substantially altered. His most important later writings were on 16th-century parliamentary history, a field in which he made himself a revisionist, critical and even contemptuous of Neale’s work on the Elizabethan parliaments. But unrelenting though his engagement was with Tudor England it was by no means his only interest. He wrote and edited textbooks on 16th-century European history and was always at home with his German colleagues, who greatly respected him.

Elton spent all but the first year or two of his academic career in Cambridge. He became a fellow of Clare College in 1954,a full professor (of English constitutional history) in 1967, and, finally, Regius Professor of Modern History in 1983.

Elton's professional life beyond Cambridge was exceptionally fruitful and creative. He was a notable president of the Royal Historical Society (RHS) and of many other societies, and he launched important editorial and bibliographical ventures, which included the RHS series Studies in History and its annual bibliographies, and the List and Index Society. He never wasted time on matters that were not directly relevant to his subject and he did nothing out of self-interest. Many honors were heaped upon Geoffrey Elton: a fellowship of the British Academy (1967), a knighthood (1986), many honorary degrees, and (at the last count) no less than five Festschriften.

He will be remembered above all as an outstanding supervisor of postgraduate research students, who lived under a severe but benign regime, were told that they could take Christmas Day off, and who were entertained every Sunday by Elton and his wife, Dr. Sheila Lambert, a distinguished historian and bibliographer in her own right. If those who are left behind to carryon the work (I write as Elton's successor in the Cambridge chair) are uncertain of our direction, it will not be because Geoffrey Elton failed to point the way.

Patrick Collinson
Cambridge University

Armstead L. Robinson

Armstead L. Robinson, director of the Carter G. Woodson Institute for Afro-American and African Studies and associate professor of history, Corcoran Department of History, University of Virginia, died on August 28, 1995, of complications from a brain aneurysm.

The son of the late Rev. deWitt Robinson and Mrs. Ruth D. Robinson, Armstead Robinson was born in New Orleans on April 30, 1947. He was a leader of the new generation of black historians, who have made major contributions as scholars as well as in the development of the institutional base for black studies.

After graduation from high school in Memphis, Tennessee, Robinson went to Yale University, where he graduated with honors and distinction in history in 1969. His honors thesis on Reconstruction in Memphis was based upon extensive research in primary sources and presents an important interpretation of the period. While at Yale he was a prime mover in the development of a black studies program, and was a coeditor of Black Studies in the University, the proceedings of an influential conference that he had helped organize.

He received his Ph.D. in history with honors from the University of Rochester in 1977, completing his dissertation, Day of Jubilo: Civil and the Demise of Slavery in the Mississippi Valley 1861-1865, under the principal supervision of Eugene D. Genovese and Stanley L. Engerman. This work presented central arguments about the role of slaves and of slavery in the Confederacy’s defeat. He argued that it was the pressures generated by slavery that led to internal conflict within the South, while the pressure of slave runaways forced northern decisions regarding emancipation. While the expansion of arguments and evidence has delayed publication of his important work, Bitter Fruits of Bondage: The Demise of Slavery and the Collapse of the Confederacy, 1861-1865 those who have read the manuscript can attest that his work should be recognized as an influential and groundbreaking analysis of the Civil War.

Robinson was an assistant professor of African and Afro-American studies at the State University of New York at Brockport and an assistant professor of history at UCLA before coming to the University of Virginia in 1980, where he founded the Woodson Institute. The institute has been among the most influential centers of Afro-American and African studies. Its Fellows Program has provided many scholars with the opportunity to complete manuscript while in residence. It has also played a central role in the recruitment and maintenance of black faculty and students at the University of Virginia.

Robinson won a number of awards, including the Yale University Medal for Distinguished Service (1987). He was a visiting professor at Smith College (1991-92) and the University of Richmond (1994-95), and the low at the National Humanities Center (1984-95), and gave named lectures at several different universities. He is survived by his wife, Mildred, a professor of law at the University of Virginia; a daughter, Allison two stepchildren, William and Teressa Ravenal; and his mother, Ruth D. Robinso. He will be remembered by those to whom he was a friend and mentor for his generosity his humor, his scholarship, and his many contributions to black studies and to the understanding of black, southern, and American history.

Stanley L. Engerman
University of Rochester

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