Publication Date

November 1, 1991

Perspectives Section

In Memoriam

William M. Armstrong

William M. Armstrong, professor emeritus, Clarkson University, died on February 25, 1991.

Dr. Armstrong received his A.B. degree in history from Bradley University in 1947, his A.M. degree from Louisiana State University in 1948, and the Ph.D. from Stanford University in 1954.

Author of the book, E.L. Godkin and American Foreign Policy, 1865–1900 (1957), Dr. Armstrong also authored several articles and book reviews in such journals as The Historian, Journal of American History, American Journal of Economics and Sociology, and Journal of Southern History.

An American Historical Association member, Dr. Armstrong was also a member of the Organization of American Historians, American Association of University Professors, and Phi Alpha Theta.

Joseph H. Cash

Joseph H. Cash, 64, professor of history, University of South Dakota, died of cancer on April 23, 1991. He received his bachelor's and master's degrees from the University of South Dakota and his Ph.D. from the University of Iowa.

Dr. Cash taught at Eastern Montana College before joining the faculty of his alma mater in 1967.

An advocate of oral history, Dr. Cash headed the Doris Duke Project at the University and built the American Indian Oral History collection into one of the largest in the world. He founded and directed the South Dakota Oral History Project. Best known for his dedication to the preservation of South Dakota history, Dr. Cash served several years as president of the South Dakota Historical Society.

R. Alton Lee
University of South Dakota

Philip Axtell Crowl

Philip Axtell Crowl, 76, a historian, author, and educator, died on May 5, 1991, after a lengthy battle with cancer.

After earning his Ph.D. from John Hopkins in 1942, Dr. Crowl served with distinction in the U.S. Navy during World War II (including a Silver Star won at Leyte Gulf). He then spent a decade building an enviable scholarly record as a teacher at Princeton, Swarthmore (his alma mater), Stanford, and the U.S. Naval Academy, and as an author of a trilogy of books on the war in the Pacific. His book, The U.S. Marines and the Amphibious War, coauthored with Jeter Isely, established him as a leading military historian, and was followed by two others in which he chronicled the war in more detail.

Always interested in the value of historical consciousness as a context for understanding the present, Dr. Crowl accepted a position in 1957 as an intelligence officer for the State Department, a job he held for another decade, serving as the director of the John Foster Dulles Oral History Project. In 1967 he returned to academe as chair of the History Department of the University of Nebraska.

In 1974, Admiral Stansfield Turner invited Dr. Crowl to come to the Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island, to establish a strategy curriculum for senior military officers, a curriculum based on a close study of selected historical case studies. During the post-Vietnam years, this curricular innovation was little short of a revolution in officer education, emulated since by other service colleges. He remained as chair of the Strategy Department until he retired to Annapolis in 1980.

In the last decade of his life, Dr. Crowl published three travel books: The Intelligent Traveller's Guide to Historic Britain, The Intelligent Traveller's Guide to Historic Scotland, and The Intelligent Traveller's Guide to Historic Ireland. Dr. Crowl also chaired the Advisory Board to the National Archives, served on the board of the Truman Library, and was a life member of the American Historical Association. He is survived by his wife of forty-seven years, Mary Ellen Crowl, three daughters, and three grandchildren.

Craig L. Symonds
United States Naval Academy

Kenneth L. Culver

Kenneth L. Culver, 87, a retired editor at Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, died of a stroke on March 11, 1991.

Dr. Culver earned his Ph.D. at the University of California at Berkeley. He taught history at U.C. Berkeley, at the University of Hawaii, and at Chico State College before joining D.C. Heath Publishers in Boston, where he was associate head of the College Department. He moved to Holt, Rinehart, and Winston in 1960 to be the editor of history, geography, and philosophy. After editing Social Problems in America, he retired in 1974.

Dr. Culver is survived by his wife, Lillian, a son, two grandchildren, and four great grandchildren.

John K. Fairbank

John K. Fairbank, a renowned China scholar and former professor of history at Harvard University, died on September 14, 1991, at the age of 84.

Mr. Fairbank was born in Huron, South Dakota, in 1907. Originally enrolling at the University of Wisconsin, he transferred to Harvard, graduating summa cum laude in 1929. As a Rhodes scholar from 1929 through 1932, Mr. Fairbank traveled to Beijing and served as a lecturer at Qinghua University. Over the next two years as a Rockefeller Foundation Fellow, he traveled widely in a dozen Chinese provinces.

Mr. Fairbank joined the Harvard faculty in 1936, where he began to transform a field that until then had been largely concerned with Chinese antiquity. After spending time in both Washington, D.C., and Chongqing, China, during World War II, Mr. Fairbank returned to Harvard and was director of the East Asian Research Center from 1955 to 1973. He was named Francis Lee Higginson Professor of History at Harvard in 1959, retiring in 1977. In addition to his academic work, Mr. Fairbank served in an advisory capacity to the governments of China and the United States.

Mr. Fairbank wrote and edited more than two dozen books, including The United States and China, first published in 1948. With Edwin O. Reischauer, Mr. Fairbank wrote East Asia: The Great Tradition andEast Asia, the Modern Transformation, widely used textbooks that are considered classics in their field. He recently finished editing his latest book, China: A New History.

Mr. Fairbank was a former president of the American Historical Association and the Association for Asian Studies.

He is survived by his wife, Wilma Cannon Fairbank, by two daughters, Laura Fairbank and Holly Fairbank Tuck, and by three grandchildren.

A more complete obituary will appear in the April 1992 issue of Perspectives.

Richard T. Farrell

Richard T. Farrell, 58, an associate professor of history and curriculum instruction at the University of Maryland, died of vasculitis on March 25, 1991.

Born in Michigantown, Indiana, Dr. Farrell graduated from Wabash College and received master's and doctoral degrees in history from Indiana University. He served in the army from 1954 to 1956.

Dr. Farrell was a specialist in the history of the northwestern United States, as well as in the teaching of history and social studies in public schools. He published several articles and essays on these subjects, and worked on curriculum issues with local school districts. He also served as a consultant to the U.S. Department of Education.

Dr. Farrell had been on the University of Maryland faculty since 1965. He served as chair of the College Park campus faculty senate in 1988 and 1989, as president of the faculty club from 1980 to 1983, and as chair of the campus curriculum committee from 1985 to 1987. Before joining the faculty at the University of Maryland, he was a public school teacher in Kokomo, Indiana.

At the time of his death, Dr. Farrell was chair of the Council of University System Faculty and a member of the faculty advisory commission of the Maryland Higher Education Advisory Commission.

In the past, Dr. Farrell had been a member of the American Historical Association, serving as a member of the Local Arrangements Committee in 1976 and as Local Arrangements Co-Chair in 1980. He was also a strong supporter in setting up the Guide to Historical Literature project.

Survivors include his wife, Jean Farrell of University Park, and two sisters, Susan Supple and Patricia Wilson, both of Indianapolis.

Oron J. Hale

Oron J. Hale, 88, a historian and former William W. Corcoran Professor of History at the University of Virginia, died on July 19, 1991, of congestive heart failure.

A specialist in the diplomatic and military history of Germany and Central Europe, Dr. Hale received his B.S. degree in history and political science from the University of Washington in 1925. He acquired his master's and Ph.D. in 1928 and 1930, respectively, from the University of Pennsylvania. He joined the University of Virginia faculty in 1929 and was chair of the Department of History from 1955 to 1962. From 1963 to 1964, he was a member of the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study.

Dr. Hale's academic career was interrupted by World War II and again by the Korean conflict. In 1945, as a lieutenant colonel attached to military intelligence, he joined in interviewing captured Nazi leaders, including Hermann Goering and Joachim von Ribbentrop. He served with the United States High Commission for Germany in 1950–52 and was commissioner for Bavaria in 1951–52. In 1969, Dr. Hale received the Commander's Cross of the Order of Merit of the German Federal Republic for his work with the Marshall Plan operations in Bavaria.

In 1972, Dr. Hale received the Phi Beta Kappa Prize for the best work of scholarship produced by a member of the University community for his book The Great Illusion: 1900–1914. Other works include Germany and the Diplomatic Revolution, for which he received the American Historical Association’s George Louis Beer Prize, and Publicity and Diplomacy.

In addition to being a fifty-year member of the American Historical Association, Dr. Hale was chair of the AHA's Committee on War Documents, which has microfilmed ten million pages of captured German documents of the Nazi and World War II periods.

Both of Dr. Hale's wives, Annette Van Vinkle and Virginia Zehmer, predeceased him. There are no immediate survivors.

Alfred F. Havighurst

Alfred F. Havighurst, professor emeritus of history at Amherst College, died on February 27, 1991, after a long illness.

Born in Mt. Pleasant, Iowa, in 1904, Dr. Havighurst graduated from Ohio Wesleyan University in 1925, and went on to earn an A.M. from the University of Chicago and a Ph.D. from Harvard University. His doctoral thesis was titled "The Status of the Judiciary in England, 1660–1685." Some of Dr. Havighurst's subsequent scholarship dealt with the role of judges in politics in the reigns of Charles II and James II.

Dr. Havighurst taught at Amherst from 1931 until his retirement in 1970. Before coming to Amherst, he was briefly professor of history and political science at Pacific University in Oregon.

Dr. Havighurst's Twentieth-Century Britain, later called Britain in Transition: The Twentieth Century, went into four editions. The Pirenne Thesis: Analysis, Criticism, and Revision, which Dr. Havighurst edited, was issued in three editions. Radical Journalist: H.W. Massingham (1860–1924) is his 1974 study of one of the outstanding journalists of early 20th-century Britain. He is also author of Modern England, 1902–1970, a bibliographical handbook sponsored by the North American Conference on British Studies.

Dr. Havighurst served in the Army Counter Intelligence Branch during World War II. For his outstanding service, he was awarded three bronze stars, a certificate of merit, and the EAME Ribbon.

In addition to being a member of the American Historical Association for sixty-one years, Dr. Havighurst belonged to the North American Conference on British Studies, the Historical Association (Britain), and the British Records Association. He also served as a member of the executive committee of Anglo-American Associates. Dr. Havighurst held an honorary M.A. degree from Amherst College, and in 1973 was elected a Fellow of the Royal Historical Association of Britain. On his retirement from Amherst College, the Alfred F. Havighurst Memorial Prize was established in his honor.

Dr. Havighurst was married to the late Mildred Linscott Porter Havighurst. He is survived by a sister and brother, Miriam Johnson of Batavia, Illinois, and Walter Havighurst of Richmond, Indiana; and by a stepson, Andrew Porter, who lives in France, and a stepdaughter-in-law, Evthokia Porter of Amherst.

John B. Halsted
Amherst College

Daniel Horn

Daniel Horn, 56, a professor of European history at Rutgers University, died of heart problems on July 1, 1991.

Dr. Horn was born in Vienna and was a 1956 graduate of Brooklyn College. He received an M.A. from Columbia University in 1957 and a Ph.D. in 1963. He taught European history at City College in Manhattan, at Temple University in Philadelphia, and at New Brunswick Theological Seminary.

Dr. Horn was the editor and translator of War, Mutiny, and Revolution in the German Navy: The World War I Diary of Seaman Richard Stumpf. He was the author of The German Naval Mutinies of World War I and coauthor, with David Oshinsky and Richard McCormick, of The Case of the Nazi Professor.

Dr. Horn was a fellow of the National Endowment for the Humanities and a member of the American Historical Association and of the board of the Jewish Historical Society.

He is survived by his wife, the former Marcia Ginsburg; a son, Jeremy, of Highland Park, New Jersey; two daughters, Shari Lazarus of Elkins Park, Pennsylvania, and Deborah Horn of Edison, New Jersey; and by a grandchild.

John T. Horton

John T. Horton, 88, a former professor at the State University of New York at Buffalo, died of a stroke on January 10, 1991.

Dr. Horton was born in Bolivar, New York, in 1902. He received his B.A. degree cum laude from the University of Buffalo in 1926, at which time he joined its faculty. In 1929 and 1935, respectively, he received M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from Harvard.

Dr. Horton taught at the State University of New York at Buffalo for forty-five years, serving as chair of the Department of History and Government from 1948 to 1962, and then as chair of the History Department until 1967. He retired in 1973.

Dr. Horton won the Alfred J. Beveridge Prize of the American Historical Association in 1939 for James Kent: A Study in Conservatism. In 1947 he published Old Erie: The Growth of an American Community, a highly-regarded history of Buffalo and Erie County, New York. For these and other contributions, Dr. Horton was awarded the Owen P. Augspurger Prize of the Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society. Other honors included membership in Phi Beta Kappa, a grant from the American Philosophical Society, and appointment to the Regents Advisory Committee on the History Curriculum of the Secondary Schools of New York State.

An able administrator and excellent scholar, Dr. Horton was renowned locally as a teacher. A skillful director of graduate research, he guided many students through the University's master's degree program.

Robert L. Ganyard
State University of New York at Buffalo

Margaret Atwood Judson

Margaret Atwood Judson, a historian, educator, and author, died March 23, 1991, at the age of 91.

Dr. Judson, who was born in Winsted, Connecticut, graduated from Mount Holyoke College in 1922. She received an M.A. in 1923 and a Ph.D. in 1933 from Radcliffe College.

Dr. Judson was professor emeritus of history at Douglass College of Rutgers University. She was chair of the History Department from 1955 to 1963 and retired in 1966, but returned as acting dean of the College until 1967.

Dr. Judson published many respected works in her field, which was 17th-century British constitutional history. Some of her publications include a classic essay on Henry Parker and the Theory of Parliamentary Sovereignty, Crisis of the Constitution, The Political Thought of Sir Henry Vane the Younger, and From Tradition to Political Reality. In Breaking the Barriers: A Professional Autobiography by a Woman Educator and Historian before the Women's Movement, Dr. Judson recalls the challenges she encountered as a woman in a predominantly male profession.

In 1990, Dr. Judson received the American Historical Association's Award for Scholarly Distinction. A chair at Rutgers University, the Margaret Atwood Judson Professor of History, is named for her.

Dr. Judson was a founding member of the North American Conference on British Studies and was active in the Berkshire Conference of Women Historians. She was a member of the American Historical Association for sixty-one years.

Howard Ten Broeck Lutz

Howard Ten Broeck Lutz, 69, died on December 26, 1990, after a short illness.

Dr. Lutz was born in Philadelphia and received his bachelor's degree from Haverford College in 1945. He earned a master's degree in Scandinavian studies as well as a doctoral degree at the University of Minnesota. His dissertation topic was on the Protestant Reformation in Finland to 1539.

Dr. Lutz taught at St. Olaf College from 1951 until 1956. In 1957 he joined the Department of History at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. From 1973 to 1974, he held the T. Wistar Brown Fellowship in Quaker History at his alma mater. Dr. Lutz was acting chair of the Department of History at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire in 1976–77 and served as coordinator of Scandinavian Area studies in the university from 1977 until his retirement. He became professor emeritus in 1989.

Dr. Lutz was a long-time member of the American Historical Association and of the American Association of University Professors, serving a term as president of the Wisconsin State AAUP Conference. He was also a member of the Society of Friends (Quakers), and was committed to the Quaker community and the cause of peace. Dr. Lutz's research and writing combined his Quaker and Scandinavian interests. His final and most notable publication was Reality and Radiance: Selected Autobiographical Works of Emilia Fogelklou.

Ronald E. Mickel
Maxwell P. Schoenfeld
University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire

Catherine M. Prelinger

Catherine M. Prelinger, 66, a founding member of the Coordinating Committee on Women in the Historical Profession, died on August 31, 1991.

Dr. Prelinger obtained her B.A. from Vassar College in 1946 and received the Ph.D. in history from Yale University in 1954. After receiving her degree, she taught at a number of secondary schools and, from 1963 to 1970, at Quinnipiac College. In the latter year, she joined the Yale Project on Benjamin Franklin's papers; she was an associate editor of the papers at the time of her death.

Throughout her life, Dr. Prelinger was dedicated to expanding educational and professional opportunities for women. She was especially devoted to the Berkshire Conference of Women Historians, serving as its president from 1975 to 1977, as well as participating in its book and article prize selection committees on numerous occasions. She was also a member of the advisory committee on women's programs at Harvard Divinity School.

Dr. Prelinger's field of scholarly interest was modern German religious and women's history. In addition to numerous scholarly articles that appeared in the United States and Germany, she published Charity, Challenge, and Change in 1987. At the time of her death, she had just completed editing Episcopal Women, a project funded by the Lilly Foundation, which will be published next year by Oxford University Press.

Dr. Prelinger is survived by her husband, Ernst Prelinger, and by two daughters.

Barbara Harris
University of North Carolina

Gabrielle M. Spiegel
University of Maryland, College Park

Stephen R. Ward

Stephen R. Ward, 53, professor and department chair, University of South Dakota, died of cancer on May 7, 1991.

Dr. Ward received his B.A. from DePauw University and his Ph.D. in English history from the University of Cincinnati in 1969. He joined the Department of History, University of South Dakota in 1967 and served with distinction as department chair for the past eighteen years.

Dr. Ward was chosen as Outstanding Teacher of the Year for several years by students at the University. He extended his efforts in enhancing the teaching of history at all education levels by founding and directing National History Day in South Dakota and had recently joined the National Council for History Day.

Dr. Ward's most recent publication was a biography of J. Ramsay MacDonald in 1990.

R. Alton Lee
University of South Dakota

Theodore M. Whitfield

Theodore M. Whitfield, professor emeritus of history, Western Maryland College and Civil War expert, died in March of 1991.

Dr. Whitfield was born in Richmond, Virginia, and graduated from the University of Richmond in 1926. He earned the doctorate from the Johns Hopkins University in 1929 and in that year joined the faculty of Western Maryland College.

Dr. Whitfield's studies of the Civil War resulted in a number of written pieces, including "Slavery Agitation in Virginia, 1829–1832," and essays on slavery and its relation to southern church history. He was an organizing committee member and former president of the Gettysburg Battlefield Preservation Commission. He also assisted in the organization of Maryland's centennial celebration of the Civil War and supported the U.S. Constitution Sesquicentennial Commission in 1937–39.

Professor Whitfield retired in 1971, after serving the college for forty-two years, many of them as chair of the department of history.

Cornelius P. Darcy
Western Maryland College

Joseph M. Woods

Joseph M. Woods, 67, associate professor of history, Atkinson College of York University, died on July 6, 1990.

Born in 1927, he received his B.A. from the University of Delaware in 1948, his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from Harvard University in 1949 and 1967, respectively. Dr. Woods taught briefly at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the University of New Hampshire, and Northeastern University before joining the faculty of Atkinson in 1968.

A specialist in Irish history, Dr. Woods' dissertation offered a pioneering psychohistorical interpretation of Charles Stewart Parnell. In 1978 in the Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic he published his landmark, “Toward a Psychoanalytic Interpretation of Charles Stewart Parnell.” Dr. Woods’ measured and enduring “Some Considerations on Psycho-History” appeared in The Historian, August 1974, and was reprinted in Psycho-History, an anthology edited by Geoffrey Cocks and Travis Crosby and published by Yale University Press.

Dr. Woods was awarded a National Endowment for the Humanities summer fellowship in 1968 and was a Visiting Scholar at The Menninger Foundation, 1972–73.

He is remembered by many students for his excellence in teaching and by colleagues and friends for his breadth of knowledge, depth and sureness of wisdom, and warmth and encouragement that he shared so gladly. A memorial scholarship is being established in his honor at Atkinson College.

Helen F. Mulvey
Connecticut College

Richard L. Schoenwald
Carnegie Mellon University

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