Publication Date

April 1, 1996

William Osgood Aydelotte

University of Iowa Professor William O. Aydelotte died on January 17, 1996, at University Hospital in Iowa City, Iowa. He was 85. An authority on British parliamentary behavior, Professor Aydelotte was a pioneer in the use of quantitative methods in historical analysis. He was awarded an honorary O.B.E. (Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II in 1961, and was the second historian ever to be elected to the National Academy of Sciences (1974).

Professor Aydelotte received a bachelor's degree in 1931 from Harvard College and a Ph.D. in 1934 from Cambridge University, where he studied diplomatic history under Herbert Butterfield and Harold Temperley. After publishing Bismarck and British Colonial Policy: The Problem of South West Africa, 1883-1885 (1937), serving on the faculties of Trinity College, Smith College, and Princeton University, and holding a fellowship at the Institute for Advanced Study (1945-47), he joined the University of Iowa Department of History in 1947.

In his early days at Iowa, Professor Aydelotte met regularly to discuss research problems with an interdisciplinary group of social scientists, and learned of statistical techniques that he put to use in a series of articles published in the 1950sand 1960s on the British House of Commons in the 1840s. He also published Quantification in History (1971); and edited The Dimensions of Quantitative Research in History (with Allan G. Bogue and Robert William Fogel, 1972); and The History of Parliamentary Behavior (1977).

For Professor Aydelotte, statistical techniques were only tools to be used in the service of a wide-ranging skepticism about accepted generalizations in history. Historians and social scientists alike respected his creativity in applying insights from his early training in Latin and Greek and his wide reading in English literature.

At the University of Iowa he is remembered as a man of gentle wit who took the lead in building a nationally recognized history department during his 15 years as chair. He served as department chair in 1945-59 and 1965-68, and continued to teach until 1978. After his retirement he retained a lively interest in departmental affairs, scholarship, and the arts. His legacy continues in a history department strongly committed to collegiality, and in the high standards of scholarship maintained by his former students.

Professor Aydelotte is survived by his wife, Myrtle Elizabeth Kitchell, a former dean of the University of Iowa College of Nursing and executive director of the American Nurses Association (1977-81); two daughters, Marie Elizabeth Aydelotte and Jean Farley Burr; and one grandchild.

Jeffrey Cox
Professor and Chair
Department of History
University of Iowa

Edward T. Gargan

Edward T. Gargan, professor emeritus of modern French history at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, died on January 10, 1995, at the age of 72. Professor Gargan suffered a heart attack while at work on an article manuscript. He had only days earlier returned to his home in Madison after attending the 109th annual meeting of the American Historical Association in Chicago.

Professor Gargan served on the faculty at the University of Wisconsin at Madison from 1967 until his retirement at the end of spring semester 1992. At the time of his death, he was still supervising doctoral dissertations. Born and raised in Brooklyn, he received his bachelor's degree in 1945 from Brooklyn College of the City University of New York and went on to complete a study of Alexis de Tocqueville as his doctoral dissertation at the Catholic University of America, where he received his Ph.D. in 1955. Professor Gargan served on the faculties of Wesleyan University, Loyola University (Chicago), and Boston College. Books, articles, and a coterie of students constitute the intellectual legacy left by Edward T. Gargan.

Professor Gargan's interests ranged widely across the landscape of modern France. Intellectual, cultural, and social history attracted his keenest attentions. His books probed the work of de Tocqueville and Hippolyte Taine, explored the fabric of French popular culture, and sought to explain state-sponsored social programs. His interest in French writers and their engagement with their times stands as a particular contribution of Professor Gargan's. Author of dozens of articles, scores of conference papers, and hundreds of book reviews, Ed Gargan was a consistent contributor to the intellectual discourse of our profession.

Throughout his active academic career, Professor Gargan received numerous grants and awards for his work, including grants from the American Council of Learned Societies, the Guggenheim Foundation, and the National Science Foundation, and an appointment by the French Ministry of Education in 1963 as Chevalier des Palmes Academiques. A founding member of the Society for French Historical Studies, he served as the organization's president in 1974. He also served as president of the American Catholic Historical Association. Professor Gargan was a regular contributor of book reviews for the American Historical Review.

While Professor Gargan's academic accomplishments are significant, it is his legacy as a humane historian that I believe best captures his spirit. Former students and colleagues all agree that Ed cared most about people—people of the past, people in the present, people of the future; this concern was shared by his wife Bernadette (Bunny), whose genuine interest in the work and progress of all Ed's students deserves notable mention. As a historian of people and their identities, Ed Gargan worked hard to understand and then articulate for others the mentalite, the worldview, and the values of the people he studied. Whether through a study of the prayer intentions recorded in a French parish register or the historical philosophy of de Tocqueville, Professor Gargan viewed his subject in complex and very human terms, rejecting ossified abstractions. He encouraged his students to do the same, to consider the reality of historical lives, to answer always the question, “Why does this matter?”

To capture the richness and variety of Ed Gargan's profound contribution to the historical study of modem France, one need look no further than volume 99, number 3 (June 1994) of the American Historical Review. The cover article, “Discovering Indigenous Nobility: Tocqueville, Chamisso and Romantic Travel Writing” by Harry Liebersohn cites Gargan’s work on de Tocqueville. Monographs of several former students, notably Whitney Walton, autl10r of France and the Crystal Palace, and Steven D. Kale, author of Legitimism and the Reconstruction if French Society, are reviewed in subsequent pages. Finally, Ed Gargan contributed a review of Philippe Hamon’s Expositions: Literature and Architecture in Nineteenth-Century France. This issue of the AHR stands as a visible reminder of Ed Gargan’s wide-ranging intellectual interests, his refreshing inquisitiveness and thoughtfulness about all dimensions of French historical identity, and his warmth and spirit. He will be greatly missed by all who had the pleasure of knowing him. Au revoir.

Kathleen Alaimo
Saint Xavier University, Chicago

Paul Goodman

Paul Goodman, professor emeritus of history at the University of California at Davis, died at his home in El Cerrito on October 6, 1995, after a long battle with cancer. Born in Brooklyn on March 1, 1934, Goodman graduated from the School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell in 1955 and received his Ph.D. from Harvard in 1961. He was a research associate at the Harvard Business School for one year, taught at Brooklyn College from 1962 to 1965, then moved to Davis, where he spent the remainder of his career. A specialist in antebellum American politics, Goodman was the author of The Democratic-Republicans of Massachusetts: Politics in a Young Republic (1965), Towards a Christian Republic: Antimasonry and the Great Transition in New England, 1826-1836 (1988), a textbook (with F.O. Gatell) USA, An American Record (1971),and numerous edited work, articles, and reviews. At his death, he had just completed Of One Blood: Origins of Racial Equality and the Rise of Abolitionism, 1820-1841, a major study that promises to be a fitting capstone to a life of dedicated scholarship.

Goodman was one of the history department's great teachers. The departmental ceremony after his death was memorable for the graduate students, past and present, who spoke of different incidents but all to a single point: that Goodman had pushed them intellectually, as one said, "beyond where you thought you could go." Goodman was for many years a mainstay of the department's undergraduate program, teaching gladly the big introductory survey as well his own advanced courses. Quite late in his career, when even dedicated teachers begin to rest on their oars, Goodman offered an undergraduate seminar in the Holocaust, which evolved, as his confidence grew, into a lecture course of enormous popularity; only seniors got in once its fame spread. Colleagues were amazed when Goodman began to interview every one of 150 enrolled students to find out why they wanted to know about the Holocaust. It was also a source of some wonder that Goodman, personally somewhat shy, regularly took his mandolin to class and sang the Yiddish songs of the camps and of liberation.

Goodman was an active unionist. When UC faculty and staff began to organize in the 1970s, Goodman took a leading part, including a term as president of the statewide University Council of the American Federation of Teachers. His great crusade was to persuade the California legislature to pass an open-files bill, which, remarkably, he succeeded in doing over the university's (and the Academic Senate's) opposition, only to see the law declared unconstitutional. It was a source of much satisfaction to him that, thanks to the growing potency of due-process arguments in the courts, the university now conforms to the principles of openness that he pioneered and fought for over many years. Goodman was famous for the indignant letters fired off at this or that misdeed of the administration, Even after faculty unionism waned, he remained active, always available to staff unionists and willing to lend a hand in difficult grievance cases. Goodman left no immediate family but many devoted friends, who will remember him as an opera lover and Francophile, as the most amiable of hosts, and for members of the history department, as a truly exemplary colleague. The bulk of his estate goes to the university to endow the Eugene V. Debs graduate fellowship (which he had anonymously funded for a number of years) and a chair in Jewish and Holocaust history named in honor of Emanuel Ringelblum, the historian of the Warsaw Ghetto. The history department has established the Paul Goodman Fund to assist graduate students to travel for archival research. Shortly before his death, Goodman was instrumental in launching such a fund to be administered on a national basis by the American Council of Learned Societies in honor of his mentor Oscar Handlin.

David Brody
Professor Emeritus of History
University of California at Davis

John P. Kenyon

John Kenyon, the first Joyce and Elizabeth Hall Professor of British History at Kansas University, died on January 6, 1996, in Norwich, England, at the age of 68. He was one of the foremost historians of 17th-century England. The author of eight scholarly books and a regular book reviewer for the Observer, Kenyon was elected a fellow of the British Academy in 1981.

Professor Kenyon was born in Sheffield, Yorkshire, on June 18, 1927. He was educated at King Edward VII School, the University of Sheffield, and Christ's College, Cambridge. With the support of his mentor, Sir John Plumb, Kenyon became a fellow of Christ's in 1954 and a university lecturer a year later.

In 1958 his first two book, were published, Robert Spencer, Earl of Sunderland (the subject of his doctoral dissertation) and The Stuarts, his best-selling study of 17th-century kingship. Rapid promotion followed. In 1962, at the tender age of 35, he was elected to the G. F. Grant Professorship at Hull University, where he spent the next19 years, 13 of them as head of the department. He produced four more books in this period, including The Stuart Constitution (1966); Revolution Principles (1977), an outgrowth of the prestigious Ford Lectures at Oxford; and Stuart England (1978), his contribution to the Pelican History of England.

At both Hull University and St. Andrews University, where he held the Chair of Modern History from 1981 to 1987 Kenyon recruited an impressive number of talented young historians. He attracted a popular following with his Observer reviews and with his next book, The History Men (1983), a study of the English historical profession. He was a visiting professor at Columbia University 1959-60;the John U. Nef Lecturer, under the auspices of the Chicago Committee on Social Thought, in 1972; and an Andrew W. Mellon Fellow at the Huntington library in 1985. In 1987, Kenyon crossed the Atlantic semipermanently to become Distinguished Professor of Early Modern British History at Kansas University, a post he held until retirement in 1994, when he and his wife, Angela, returned to Norfolk. Soon after his arrival in Kansas, he published The Civil Wars in England (1988), and at the time of his death he was working on a edition of The Oxford Illustrated History of the English Civil Wars.

John Kenyon has been variously described as a blunt Yorkshire man, curmudgeon, misanthrope, grim pessimist, and in later life, as Falstaffian. These were only some of his many sides. He was a generous colleague, willing to pitch in by teaching a first-year survey each year to lighten his junior partner's load (for which I was always grateful). He was a demanding yet effective mentor of graduate students. He could be boon companion, lively raconteur, and hilarious correspondent. He enjoyed listening to jazz, a recreation he shared with Hull's poet-librarian, Philip Larkin. While he was justly proud of his scholarly achievements, he could also find fun at his own expense. He liked to recall how, when he stopped reviewing for the Observer, readers expressed regret at the disappearance, not of P. Kenyson’s history reviews, but of the science fiction reviews that Kenyon wrote pseudonymously. He was also bravely stoic in the face of life-threatening illness. The final word must go, however, to J. P. Kenyon, renowned historian of the Stuart age. In vigorous, elegant, and entertaining prose, John Kenyon’s incisive and sophisticated scholarship advanced considerably our appreciation of the political and constitutional history of early modem England. His books will still be driving the freeways of scholarship long after more flashy models (many of which Kenyon abrasively dismissed) have been withdrawn.

He leaves his widow, Angela, two daughters and a son.

Victor Bailey
University of Kansas

Kenneth M. Setton

Kenneth M. Setton, professor emeritus in the School of Historical Studies of the Institute for Advanced Study, died on February 18, 1995, in Princeton, New Jersey. Kenneth Setton was a towering figure in European and Ottoman medieval history. For more than 20 years he was distinguished professor in the School of Historical Studies of the Institute for Advanced Study. He was born in New Bedford, Massachusetts, studied at Boston University (B.A., 1936; Litt.D., 1957), received his M.A. and Ph.D. from Columbia University (1938, 1941), and also received an honorary degree from the Universitat Kiel in 1979. His scholarly career began in classics and history at Boston University, continued in history at the University of Manitoba, Columbia University, and the University of Pennsylvania, as director of the Gennadins Library in Athens, and as director of the Institute for Research in the Humanities at the University of Wisconsin (1965-68). He became a professor in the Institute’s School of Historical Studies in 1968 and professor emeritus in 1984.

He served as president of the Medieval Academy of America and was twice vice president of the American Philosophical Society. In 1957, 1984, and 1990, he was awarded the John Frederick Lewis Prize of the American Philosophical Society. In 1980 he received the Charles Homer Haskins Medal of the Medieval Academy of America, and in 1990, he received the Award for Scholarly Distinction of the American Historical Association. Professor Setton also received numerous awards and honors abroad, including the Gold Cross of the Order George I (Greece) and the Prix Gustave Schlumberger.

Professor Setton's major writings, which largely center in European and Ottoman history, extend from the late Roman Empire to the early modem period and embrace diplomatic, military, political, and cultural history. They include The Papacy and Levant, 1204-1577 (4 volumes, 1976); Catalan Domination of Athens, 1311-1388 (1948); Europe and the Levant in the Middle Ages and Renaissance (1974); Athens in the Middle Ages (1975); Venice, Austria, and the Turks in the Seventeenth Century (1991); and Western Hostility to Islam (1992). He also edited a six-volume History of the Crusades and published numerous articles and reviews. His work as a scholar was rigorous, exhaustive, and definitive. The same qualities of concern for their enduring influence marked his many personal contributions to the Institute for Advanced Study, including his generous gifts for acquisitions for the Institute’s libraries. Professor Setton is survived by a son, George W. F. Setton, of Chicago. His first wife, Josephine W. Swift, died in 1967. His second wife, Margaret T. Henry, died in 1987.

Norman MacNatt
Institute for Advanced Study
Princeton, New Jersey

Joseph Frazier Wall

Grinnell College regrets to announce the death on October 9, 1995, of Joseph Frazier Wall, historian and biographer.

Joseph Wall grew up in Iowa, graduated from Grinnell in 1941, and after serving as a naval officer during World War II, returned to Grinnell in 1947 to teach history. Before entering the Navy, Wall received an M.A. from Harvard University, studying with Samuel Eliot Morison. After the war, he earned his PhD. at Columbia, studying with Henry Steele Commager and Allan Nevins. Wall's literary gifts were comparable to those of Morison and Nevins, and his intellectual sympathies were akin to those of Commager. His doctoral dissertation on Henry Watterson was published by Oxford in 1956aswerehismajor biographies: Andrew Carnegie (1970), which won the Bancroft Prize, and Alfred DuPont (1990), which was a finalist for a Pulitzer Prize. Wall himself was equally proud of a minor work written with Robert Parks (who was later president of Iowa State University) during the McCarthy era, Freedom; Study It, Understand It, Maintain It. Wall also wrote Iowa A Bicentennial History in 1976 for the Norton series, Policies and People; a 1979 study of the Bankers Life Insurance Company; and The Andrew Carnegie Reader, in 1992.

Except for two years in the 1970s as chair of the history department at the State University of New York at Albany, Wall's entire career was spent at Grinnell, where he was a vital figure in the recent history of the college. He served as chair of the history department, chair of the faculty, and dean of the college. He was successively Roberts Honor Professor; L.F. Parker Professor of History; and Rosenfield Professor and director of the Rosenfield Program in Public Affairs, International Relations, and Human Rights. He had also been a Fulbright Scholar at the Universities of Edinburgh, Gothenburg, and Salzburg.

In addition to his scholarly writing and his service to the college, Joseph Wall was a stimulating teacher of American history and culture. No "dry as dust" historian, he was fully alive to present problems, and the appeal of his teaching derived in part from his sense of history as a dialogue between the past and the present. He believed in liberal education and liberal values. He commanded the affection and respect of his students, many of whom have become historians. His death is a loss to them, to his family, to Grinnell, and to the profession.

Alan R. Jones
Professor of History
Grinnell College, Iowa

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