Publication Date

April 1, 1995

Perspectives Section

In Memoriam

Arthur E. Bestor

Arthur E. Bestor, professor emeritus of history at the University of Washington, died of lung cancer at his home in Seattle on December 16, 1994, at the age of 86. Born in Chautauqua, New York, where his father was president of the Chautauqua Institution, he received bachelor's and doctoral degrees from Yale University in 1930 and 1938. He taught at Yale, Columbia University Teachers College, and the University of Illinois before moving in 1962 to the University of Washington, where he taught until his retirement in 1976. A recipient of a Guggenheim Fellowship and two Fulbright Fellowships, Bestor was Harmsworth Professor of American History at Oxford University in 1956–57. He is survived by his fellow scholar and wife of 45 years, Dorothy Koch Bestor, and three sons, all of whom are pursuing academic careers.

Arthur Bestor devoted his intellectual life to investigating the success of the American experiment, and he made important scholarly contributions to three of its central concerns—its utopian aspirations, its passionate belief in self-improvement, and the configurative influences exerted by its constitutional beliefs and structures. One of his earliest books, Backwoods Utopias (awarded the AHA’s Albert J. Beveridge Prize in 1946), studied the 19th-century Owenite communitarian communities. A second group of writings, centered around Educational Wastelands (1953) and The Restoration of Learning (1955), attacked what he regarded as the sterility of American precollegiate education in the 1950s. Most recently, Bestor made himself a noted scholar on the U.S. Constitution, writing many now-classic articles on such issues as the debate over slavery, the impeachment process, and the role of the Senate in foreign affairs. A book-length manuscript on the intent of the framers of the Constitution was near completion at his death. In all these areas, Bestor linked his scholarship to the public arena. He was a founding member and past president of the Council for Basic Education; he testified before congressional committees concerning the meaning of the Constitution in matters of peace and war; and he was one of the first scholars to call publicly for President Richard Nixon’s resignation as the Watergate scandal unfolded.

Arthur Bestor was a devoted and meticulous teacher. Lucid in mind, he wrote with exceptional grace and clarity. He was a prizewinning and infinitely painstaking photographer, and an ardent walker. His colleagues recall him as a man of instinctive and self-deprecating humor and the writer of innumerable carefully crafted memorandums, with a consuming and benevolent interest in all around him. But this benevolence was infused with twin passions—for the integrity of the enterprise of intellectual enquiry and for the welfare and probity of the state. A lifelong student of the framers of the Republic, he also embodied and sustained their virtues.

Richard R. Johnson
University of Washington

Philip S. Foner

Philip S. Foner, professor emeritus of history at Lincoln University of Pennsylvania, died on December 13, 1994, one day short of his 84th birthday. Foner was one of the most prominent Marxist historians in the United States. A prolific author and editor, he tirelessly documented the lives of workers, African Americans, and political radicals. Shut out of academic employment for a quarter century because of his political affiliations, he nonetheless helped lay the basis for the explosion of scholarship in labor and black history during the past two decades.

Philip Foner was one of four sons of a poor Jewish immigrant family in New York. (His twin brother Jack also became a historian and taught at Colby College.) Educated at the City College of New York and Columbia University, Foner's dissertation, supervised by Allan Nevins, formed the basis of his first book, Business and Slavery: The New York Merchants and the Irrepressible Conflict (1941). He began teaching at City College in 1932. Nine years later, he was among some three dozen faculty members forced out of the New York City college system for their ties to the Communist Party following an investigation of public education by the Rapp-Courdet committee of the New York State legislature.

Blacklisted from the academic world (as were all his brothers), Philip Foner lectured on history to labor and left-wing audiences. In 1947, while working as a book editor, he began publishing what eventually grew into the 10-volume History of the Labor Movement in the United States, his most influential work. A flood of books followed, on United States–Cuban relations, Jack London, Mark Twain, labor and the American Revolution, and the impact of European socialism on American life.

In 1967, with the McCarthy era over, Philip Foner joined the faculty of Lincoln University, where he taught until his retirement in 1979. Two years later, he and the other faculty members who were fired in 1941 were belatedly vindicated by the New York City Board of Higher Education, which issued an apology to them for their dismissal, deeming it a violation of academic freedom.

Perhaps Philip Foner's most important contributions were the many documentary collections he edited. These included volumes of speeches and writings by Thomas Paine, Frederick Douglass, José Martí, W. E. B. Du Bois, Clara Zetkin, Paul Robeson, and the Black Panthers; two volumes on women and the labor movement; and an eight-volume documentary history of the black worker (coedited by Ronald Lewis). Though never fully embraced by academic historians, even when the topics he devoted his career to became fashionable, Foner served as a living link between the Old Left and the multicultural social history so prevalent today.

Joshua B. Freeman
Columbia University

Cornelius Philip Forster, O.P.

Cornelius Philip Forster, O.P., of the Dominican Friary of St. Thomas Aquinas, in Providence, R.I., died on November 18, 1993, after a five-year struggle against lymphoma. He was born in New York City on October 27, 1919. He graduated from Cathedral Boys' High School in New York City, in 1937, and earned his B.A. in history and philosophy from Fordham University in 1941. In August of that year Forster entered the Novitiate of St. Joseph's Province of the order of Preachers at St. Rose Priory, in Springfield, Kentucky. He made his first profession at St. Rose on August 23, 1942, and on June 3, 1948, was ordained a Dominican priest at the House of Studies in Washington, D.C.

In the Dominican tradition, Cornelius Forster completed three years of study in philosophy and four years of study in theology, earning both the S.T.L. (Licentiate) and S.T.Lr. (Lectorate of Sacred Theology) from the Pontifical Faculty of the Immaculate Conception, in Washington, D.C., in 1949. He also completed an M.A. in history at the Catholic University of America under Friedrich Engel-Janosi in 1950. In 1963 he received the Ph.D. from Fordham University. His doctoral dissertation, written under Ross Hoffman, was entitled "Charles Townshend: A Study of His Political Conduct."

Assigned to Providence College in 1949, Cornelius Forster began a multifaceted career that spanned 44 years of service in Dominican education. Full professor of history by 1958, he chaired the undergraduate history department from 1962 to 1992, founded the Providence College Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and remained both its first dean and chair of the graduate history department from 1964 until his death. He was also executive vice president of Providence College from 1982 to 1985, acting president in 1982, and archivist of the Dominican Province of St. Joseph, but his first passion was the classroom.

An esteemed and beloved teacher, in 44 years Cornelius Forster taught 210 courses for 6,561 students (22 percent of Providence College's 30,000 alumni), and under his direction 4,000 students received graduate degrees.

Among his many accolades, Cornelius Forster received the Distinguished Achievement in Education Award in 1984, and at the college's 75th anniversary convocation, he received the Diamond Torch Award to honor his myriad services to Providence College. Priestly, scholarly, genial, and courteous, Forster was a man of passionate commitment and loyalty to his faith, to the Church, the Order, the college, to his family and friends—a rock of stability amid all the social and religious upheaval of recent years.

Cornelius Forster drew upon his enduring research and teaching interests in European history, particularly 18th- and 19th-century British history, to produce over 40 scholarly articles, papers, book reviews, and books, including Lord Acton and the Papacy and the critical political biography The Uncontrolled Chancellor: Charles Townshend and His American Policy. He was a member of the National Catholic Education Association, the American Historical Association, the American Association of University Administrators, the New England Association of Graduate Schools, the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, the New England Conference on British Studies, Phi Alpha Theta, and Delta Epsilon Sigma. He organized the 1987 national spring meeting of the American Catholic Historical Association.

Father Forster will be greatly missed by all who knew him.

Donna T. McCaffrey
Providence College

Barbara Brightfield Jelavich

Barbara Brightfield Jelavich, noted scholar and distinguished professor emeritus of history at Indiana University, died January 14, 1995, in Bloomington, Indiana, at the age of 71, after a prolonged battle with cancer. Born April 12, 1923, in Belleville, Illinois, she received her degrees from the University of California at Berkeley: A.B. with honors in 1943, M.A. in 1944, and Ph.D. in 1948. Before joining the faculty at Indiana in 1961 along with her husband Charles, she taught briefly at Mills College and at Berkeley. Together they became pioneers in the field of East European studies.

A historian of diverse interests, Barbara Jelavich was a prolific scholar who authored or coauthored 17 books on Balkan, Habsburg, Russian, Soviet, and Ottoman history. Although much of her writing centered around diplomatic history, her comprehensive two-volume History of the Balkans (1983) is considered by many to be her greatest work. Displaying a keen awareness of and appreciation for the distinct and rich history of this often troubled region, she gave meaning and significance to lands frequently overlooked by others. Through her meticulous research and clear prose, southeastern Europe emerges as an integral part of European history, not merely an afterthought to be recalled only when events in the region affected the great powers.

Her other works included Russia and the Rumanian National Cause (1959); The Habsburg Empire in European Affairs, 1814–1918 (1969); The Ottoman Empire, the Great Powers and the Straits Question, 1870–1887 (1973); St. Petersburg and Moscow: Tsarist and Soviet Foreign Policy, 1814–1974 (1974); The Establishment of the Balkan National States, 1804–1920, coauthored with Charles Jelavich (1977); Modern Austria (1987); and Russia's Balkan Entanglements, 1806–1914 (1991).

A key presenter at national and international conferences for four decades, Barbara Jelavich received numerous awards both for the pioneering nature of her work and for her unique and lasting contributions to the field. Among these were the inaugural Lifetime Achievement Award presented by the Association for Women in Slavic Studies in 1992, the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies' Award for Distinguished Contributions to Slavic Studies (presented to Barbara and Charles Jelavich, the only such joint presentation in the organization's history), and honorary membership in the Romanian Academy of Sciences presented to Barbara in 1992 in recognition of her singular contributions to the field of Romanian history. Jelavich also served on the editorial board for the AHA's Guide to Historical Literature, and she was a member of the Professional Division of the AHA in the early 1980s. A Barbara Jelavich Book Prize has been established by the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies (AAASS). Contributions may be sent to the AAASS, Jordan Quad/Acacia, 125 Panama St., Stanford, CA 94305-4130.

Barbara Jelavich retired from Indiana University in 1992. While her scholarly achievements were legion and she will rightly be remembered as the consummate scholar, her students will most likely recall with fondness her skills as a teacher and mentor. Certainly scores of former students will continue her legacy in the classroom and in the archives. Barbara Jelavich showed them the way to do both.

Richard Frucht
Northwest Missouri State University

Sheldon B. Liss

Sheldon B. Liss, internationally respected scholar of Latin American history and politics, died on October 19, 1994, after a 13-year struggle with cancer. Liss, born in Philadelphia on November 3, 1936, resided in the Cleveland, Ohio, suburb of Brecksville.

Sheldon Liss, who held the rank of distinguished professor of history at the University of Akron, specialized in Latin American political and social thought and inter-American relations. He was best known for his work in the field of radical and Marxist movements. He served as a coeditor of the periodical monograph series Latin American Issues and as a participating editor of the theoretical journal Latin American Perspectives. The recipient of several “outstanding teacher” awards, he was the author of many reviews and articles. His books included Fidel! Castro's Political and Social Thought (1994); Radical Thought in Central America (1991); Roots of Revolution: Radical Thought in Cuba (1987); Marxist Thought in Latin America (1984); Diplomacy and Dependency: Venezuela, the United States, and the Americas (1978); The Canal: Aspects of United States Panamanian Relations (1967); and A Century of Disagreement: The Chamizal Conflict, 1864–1964 (1965).

Sheldon Liss, who initially attended Albright College in Reading, Pennsylvania, received a B.A. from American University in Washington, D.C., in 1958, an M.A. degree from Duquesne University in Pittsburgh in 1962, and the Ph.D. in history from American University in 1964. He served on the faculties of Indiana State University and the University of Notre Dame before going to the University of Akron in 1967. There, he organized the Latin American Studies Program. A longtime political activist, he devoted considerable effort to international peace organizations and to groups concerned with human rights in Latin America. He testified frequently as an expert witness in federal immigration court cases dealing with political asylum for persecuted Central Americans. He served as a guest lecturer at many institutions, including the University of Chicago, Earlham College, the University of Michigan, the University of Arizona, Oberlin College, the University of Pittsburgh, Michigan State University, and the University of Havana.

As an undergraduate, Sheldon Liss participated in a number of varsity athletics; his best sport was swimming. He pursued his love of athletics in later life by swimming and running long distances regularly.

Sheldon Liss is survived by his wife, Dr. C. Susan Chester of Brecksville; son Steven of Hiram, Ohio; and daughter Jacqueline Pickering and granddaughter Haley Pickering of Savannah, Georgia.

Keith L. Bryant
University of Akron

Neil A. McNall

Neil A. McNall, professor emeritus of American history at Pennsylvania State University and a member of the AHA for 50 years, died December 9, 1994. He was born July 26, 1913, in Fairfax, Vermont. His bachelor's and master's degrees were earned at the University of Vermont, and his doctorate in American history at Cornell University, where he studied under Paul Wallace Gates.

Neil McNall joined the faculty at Penn State in 1947, after teaching for three years at Westminster College in New Wilmington, Pennsylvania, and two years at the New York College for Teachers in Albany. He taught at Penn State, where he introduced courses in agricultural history and Western history, for 32 years before retiring in 1979. His Agricultural History of the Genesee Valley, 1790–1860 received special commendation from, and was sponsored for publication by, the Albert H. Beveridge Memorial Fund in 1952. Other publications included articles published in New York History and Business History Review. A longtime member of the Pennsylvania Historical Association, McNall served as that organization’s business secretary from 1979 to 1985. He also was archivist of the Central Pennsylvania Methodist Conference from 1979 to 1991.

Colleagues, students, and acquaintances quickly discovered in Neil McNall a friendly nature, persistent humor, a phenomenal memory, and a penchant for coining puns and composing doggerel verse. In addition to his wife Kathryn (Kay), daughter Jessica, son Lyndon, and two grandsons, he is survived by his colleagues in the profession and hundreds of students.

Gerald G. Eggert
Penn State University

Janet Oppenheim

Janet Oppenheim, an internationally known scholar in British history, died last December of cancer at the age of 46. At the time of her death, Dr. Oppenheim was professor of history at American University in Washington, D.C., where she had taught for 18 years.

Janet Oppenheim joined the history faculty at American University in 1975 after distinguished undergraduate and graduate careers at the Brearley School in New York City, at Bryn Mawr College, and at Columbia University, where she earned her doctorate in 1975. Her dissertation, which was directed by the late Stephen Kass, traced the rise of government support for the arts in the Victorian, Edwardian, and recent eras. She taught at Mary Washington College in Fredericksburg, Virginia, before joining the American University faculty. She held visiting appointments at Princeton, Villanova, and Bryn Mawr, and served on the editorial boards of the Journal of Modern History and the Journal of the History of Ideas. Janet Oppenheim also received numerous fellowships, awards, and honors, including research grants from the American Philosophical Society, the American Council of Learned Societies, the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the Guggenheim Fellowship Foundation. She was also honored with the American University College of Arts and Sciences’ faculty award for outstanding scholarship and research.

Janet Oppenheim taught a wide variety of subjects, but her particular specialty was Victorian, Edwardian, and modern England. She also taught courses on the history of modern France, early modern European intellectual history, gender roles and stereotypes in Victorian England, and the condition of women in Victorian England. In large classes she was a poised, lucid, and fluent lecturer, but she was equally effective in small classes, where she deftly guided constructive discussion. She took particular pleasure in befriending and encouraging students and had many young friends and student admirers.

In addition to numerous articles, reviews, lectures, and presentations, Janet Oppenheim published three important, highly regarded books. The first, The Nationalization of Culture, traced the growth of government support for the visual and performing arts in England from the early 19th century to the present. Her second book, The Other World: Spiritualism and Psychical Research in England, 1850–1914 (1985), explored the world of Victorian Spiritualists and persons interested in psychic phenomena. Her third book, Shattered Nerves (1991), analyzed the Victorian world of emotional illness and depression. ÿ20Shattered Nerves describes methods of medical treatment for incapacitating depression and makes understandable the theories and assumptions that prompted doctors to prescribe for their patients long periods of isolation and bed rest; tonics and stimulants, including arsenic and opium; water baths; sojourns in the country; massage treatments; and electrotherapy. The book received high critical praise and is a masterpiece of lucid, graceful exposition and perceptive analysis.

Janet Oppenheim had extraordinary historical empathy with her subjects. Victorian notions about "neurasthenia" and "nerve prostration" could easily invite satire or condescension, but each of these books treats its subject, no matter how eccentric or strange, with sympathy, balance, and respect.

Janet Oppenheim's accomplishments in 46 years form an enviable record of excellence and achievement. Her teaching, her scholarship, and her spirit will live on—in her books, her students, her many friends, her family, and her colleagues. She is survived by a daughter, Ashley Minihan; her husband, Dr. John Salmon, professor emeritus at Bryn Mawr; her sister, Barbara Berresford of New York City; and her mother, Mrs. Elaine Oppenheim, also of New York City. She is greatly missed.

Roger H. Brown
American University

Richard E. Powell, Jr.

The academic year at the University of Delaware began tragically with the suicide of Hagley Fellow Richard E. Powell, Jr., 31, on August 29, 1994. A 1985 graduate of William and Mary, Richard had come to the program in 1991 after working at Colonial Williamsburg as a coach driver and animal trainer. He soon impressed faculty and fellow graduate students with the range of his curiosity and learning as well as his courtesy and thoughtfulness. He had published extensively, especially on early American carriages and sleighs, but most recently he had written on the social history of cockfighting and on a Philadelphia coach-making firm in the late 18th century. The dissertation on which he was working was a close investigation of man's manipulation of animals since the 18th century, particularly the silkworm, the turkey, the mule, and the mouse, and was held to be of such significance that he had been nominated for appointment to Harvard's prestigious Society of Fellows. Richard Powell is sorely missed and will be for a long time. Requiescat in pace.

Lawrence G. Duggan
University of Delaware

George Enrico Pozzetta

George Enrico Pozzetta died on Thursday, May 19, 1994, in Gainesville, Florida, from postoperative strokes following relatively minor surgery on his arm. We have lost a brilliant historian, a good man, and a very dear friend.

George Pozzetta was born on October 29, 1942, in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. His family originated in the Alpine region of Piedmont. His father, Attilio, was from the village of Seppiana; his mother, Mary Ciolina, was born in the United States, but her parents came from the nearby village of Toceno. His maternal grandparents were part of the migration of woodcutters who came to work in the forests of western Massachusetts. His paternal grandfather traveled back and forth several times, working on railroads, before settling in the United States. George Pozzetta's father worked in the paper mill and was a member and officer of the United Papermakers and Paperworkers local. Growing up in an Italian immigrant working-class family powerfully influenced his life and his scholarship.

After receiving his bachelor's and master's degrees in history from Providence College in Rhode Island and serving in Vietnam as a U.S. Army officer (for which he received the Bronze Star Medal), George Pozzetta pursued graduate studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He wrote his dissertation, "The Italians of New York City, 1890–1914," and received the doctorate in 1971. He soon joined the history department at the University of Florida, where he remained. His enthusiasm and accessibility made him a popular and effective instructor; he was the recipient of the Teacher of the Year Award in 1978. In recognition of his outstanding contributions to teaching and research, he was promoted to the rank of professor in 1987.

George Pozzetta's publications constitute an extensive and enduring body of literature relating to American social history. In over 50 pieces (chapters in books, journal articles, and encyclopedia entries), as well as in several edited volumes, George ranged widely over the terrain of 20th-century America, including Progressive reform, the South, politics, and immigration historiography. In addition to his own writings, George has placed future generations of students in his debt through the compilation of 20 volumes of judiciously selected journal articles in American Immigration and Ethnicity (1991). His strong interest in the history of the South and Florida is reflected in a number of publications, including the groundbreakingShades of the Sunbelt: Essays on Ethnicity, Race, and the Urban South, coedited with Randall Miller (1988), as well as by his editorship of the Florida Historical Quarterly.

George Pozzetta's abiding commitment, however, has been to immigration and working-class history—and in particular to the history of Italian immigrants. In the forefront of those who over the past two decades have been rewriting our history from a pluralist perspective, his scholarship is distinguished by respect for and empathy with his subjects, scrupulous and thorough research in Italian as well as American sources, a full appreciation of the transatlantic dimension of migration studies, and a capacity to view the particular in a broad interpretive perspective.

Although his researches on Italian Americans span a variety of topics, George Pozzetta's twin interests in working-class and immigrant history realized their highest expression in The Immigrant World of Ybor City: Italians and Their Latin Neighbors in Tampa, 1885–1985, coauthored by Gary R. Mormino (1987). Deservedly included in the University of Illinois’s Statue of Liberty/Ellis Island Centennial Series and awarded the Theodore Saloutos Prize for the Best Book in Immigration History (1987) by the Immigration History Society, this monograph serves as a model for future studies. It incorporates a sophisticated treatment of class consciousness and conflict, including the role of radical ideologies and ideologues, with an appreciation of ethnic culture as a basis for group solidarity. Women and gender differences receive sensitive consideration as do the continuing relationships between the immigrants and their places of origin. More distinctively, The Immigrant World of Ybor City is a model of an interethnic approach because the relationships among Sicilian, Cuban, and Spanish cigar workers (as well as with their Anglo antagonists) is a central theme of the work.

As due recognition of his accomplishments, George Pozzetta was the recipient of many honors and awards, including the decoration by the Italian Republic of Cavaliere nell'Ordine al Merito della Repubblica Italiana. He also served as president of the Florida College Teachers of History (1976–77) and of the American Italian Historical Association (1978–80).

Having said all of this about George Pozzetta the scholar, we have yet to speak of him as Giorgio—as he liked to be known—the human being. It can be said that he was the most amiable and affable of men; but the Italian simpatico, for which there is no precise English equivalent, expresses this quality best. Generous and kind, he gave freely of help and assistance to colleagues and students alike. He was good humored, always ready with a joke and a laugh. He enjoyed life, and he relished a good meal, good wine, and good company. His visits to Italy, most recently in the fall of 1993 when he taught in the FSU-Florence program, were a source of great joy to him. George Pozzetta was a devoted husband and father. His wife and former high school classmate, Sandy (Sandra Magdalenski), and children, James and Adrienne, were at the center of his life. His capacity for ready and warm friendship won him a wide circle of amici, here and in Italy, who feel and mourn his loss deeply.

Rudolph J. Vecoli
University of Minnesota at Twin Cities

Emma Lou Thornbrough

Emma Lou Thornbrough, professor emeritus of history at Butler University, died in Indianapolis on December 16, 1994. A native of Indianapolis, Emma Lou Thornbrough was a graduate of Butler University, where she earned both bachelor's and master's degrees. She then went on to earn her Ph.D. at the University of Michigan. Dr. Thornbrough returned to a position in the history department at Butler University in 1946, where she served on the faculty until her retirement in 1983. She received many honors during her tenure at Butler: the J. I. Holcomb Award in 1957, the Butler Outstanding Professor Award in 1965, and the Butler Medal in 1981. In that same year, Thornbrough was appointed to the McGregor Chair in History. In 1988 Butler University awarded her an honorary doctorate. During her distinguished career, Thornbrough also held visiting appointments at Indiana University and Case Western Reserve University.

Emma Lou Thornbrough will long be remembered as a pioneer in the field of African American history. She published a number of books during her long career, including Eliza A. Baker, Her Life and Work (1956); The Negro in Indiana before 1900 (1957, 1993); Indiana in the Civil War Era, 1850–1880 (1965); Booker T. Washington (1969); Black Reconstructionists (1972); and T. Thomas Fortune, Militant Journalist (1972).

Emma Lou Thornbrough was a model, not only in her role as teacher and scholar, but also as an engaged academic. Her interest in U.S. constitutional history and in African American history grew out of her conviction that race has been a central force throughout U.S. history, and she applied what she learned in her research and teaching to ongoing issues in race relations and civil rights in Indiana. Her lifelong commitment to the civil rights struggle is witnessed by her most recent research and writing on the desegregation of public schools in Indianapolis.

But Emma Lou Thornbrough's engagement in the community extended beyond her scholarship and teaching. She was an active member of each of the following organizations, for many of which she served as an office or board member: Organization of American Historians, Southern Historical Association, Indiana Association of Historians, Indiana Alpha Association of Phi Beta Kappa, American Association of University Professors, Indiana Civil Liberties Union, Council of World Affairs, Indianapolis NAACP, Indianapolis Human Relations Council, and Indiana Historical Society.

Emma Lou Thornbrough's honors and awards include Phi Beta Kappa; Indiana Author's Day recognition (1966); Martin Luther King Award, Indianapolis Education Association (1976); Indiana Academy Award (1981); Indiana Liberty Bell Award, Indiana State Bar Association (1987); Roy Wilkins Award, Indianapolis Urban League (1991); Fadely History Award, Marion County-Indianapolis Historical Society (1991); the Indiana Historical Society Hoosier History Award (1992); and the American Historical Association's Award for Scholarly Distinction (1993).

It was her dedication to learning, and to her students, however, that was the hallmark of Emma Lou Thornbrough's work. Not only did she teach courses on American constitutional history, African American history, and the history of the American South, but she also offered courses on Greek and Roman civilizations, demonstrating her intellectual breadth. In her last year at Butler, Thornbrough played the leading role in launching a new interdisciplinary comparative world cultures course in the core curriculum, a mark of her innovative spirit and her commitment to liberal education. As a former student wrote in a testimonial at the time of her retirement, "a supporter of a liberal education in a time when breadth of knowledge is not much prized by some, she understands the value of college as a place where imagination must thrive and students can dream big dreams. . . . Her teaching and service within the school have stimulated many, enlightened most, and served as an example of intelligence and humanity to all." Emma Lou Thornbrough will be missed, to be sure, but she has left her mark on all who knew her.

Paul Hanson
Butler University

Donald W. Treadgold

Donald W. Treadgold, professor emeritus of history at the University of Washington, died at the age of 72 on December 13, 1994. He earned his B.A. at the University of Oregon, his M.A. at Harvard, and his D.Phil. as a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford. He taught Russian-Soviet history and the history of religion for 44 years and was awarded the E. Harrison Harbison Award for Distinguished Teaching. This was only one of the many awards he received, including a Ford Foundation Fellowship and grants from the Rockefeller Foundation and the Guggenheim Foundation. Treadgold also served his university as chair of the history department for 10 years.

He was a lifelong member of the AHA and served the Association in several capacities. He was the only scholar who was awarded both the Distinguished Service Award and the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Slavic Studies by the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies, an organization he served as a member of the board of directors, president, and twice as the editor of its publication, the Slavic Review, for a total of 11 years.

Donald Treadgold was elected as a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences for his service to the profession, which included visiting professorships in this country and abroad and numerous guest lectures at many universities and colleges, as well as for his outstanding scholarship. His best known work, Twentieth Century Russia, was first published in 1959 with the totally revised eighth edition appearing a few weeks after his death. Among his other works were the two-volume The West in Russia and China, The Great Siberian Migration, Lenin and His Rivals, A History of Christianity, and Freedom: A History, as well as a great number of articles, edited and coedited volumes, and contributions to works edited by colleagues.

Donald Treadgold is survived by Alva, his wife of 47 years, and their children, Warren and Irina Treadgold, Laura and Allen Puckett, and Catherine Treadgold.

Peter Sugar
University of Washington

Winifred D. Wandersee

Winifred D. Wandersee, Dewar Chair of History at Hartwick College, died October 11, 1994, in Cooperstown, New York, of cancer. Wandersee was born on February 18, 1940, in Minneapolis, Minnesota. She received her B.S. degree from Iowa State University, and her M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota. She taught at St. Cloud State University and Syracuse University before moving to Hartwick College in 1980.

Winifred Wandersee was the motivating force behind the creation of a women's studies program at Hartwick, and had just finished two terms as faculty chair. She was the only faculty member ever to obtain a "clean sweep" of the college's three scholar and teacher awards. In 1983 the Student Senate gave her their Meritorious Service Award. In 1990 the Class of 1985 bestowed upon her the Margaret Bunn Award for Excellence in Teaching, and in 1994 she received recognition as Hartwick's Teacher-Scholar of the Year.

Winifred Wandersee was also visible in her community. She served a four-year term on the Oneonta City Council, and was active in the local Unitarian Universalist Church and the Democratic Party. She had been an avid book collector, softball player, runner, and hiker. Even in the last stages of her illness she managed to find energy for hikes in the Catskills.

Winifred Wandersee was the author of Women's Work and Family Values, 1920–1940 and On the Move: American Women in the 1970s, and was working on a biography of Frances Perkins when she died. She published many articles, book chapters, and reviews on various aspects of 20th-century U.S. women’s history, and made numerous presentations at universities, libraries, and professional meetings. Wandersee was an active member of the American Historical Association, the Organization of American Historians, and other professional societies. She was the recipient of grants from the American Council of Learned Societies and the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH), among others, and she served on an NEH Research Panel.

Winifred Wandersee is survived by three children; two grandchildren; her partner, Terrence Fine; and her colleagues and friends, all of whom deeply mourn her loss.

Ann Hibner
Koblitz Hartwick College

Henry James Young

Henry James Young, emeritus Dana Professor of History at Dickinson College and a life member of the American Historical Association, died on February 11, 1995, at the age of 86.

Born and raised in York, Pennsylvania, Henry Young attended Franklin and Marshall College in Lancaster. After his graduation in 1932, he became the director of the Historical Society of York County. Except for 44 months' active service during World War II, he remained at the historical society until 1949. Thanks in large part to Young's work as director and archivist, the historical society became a model of its kind.

After his return from military service Young decided to pursue graduate study in history at Johns Hopkins University, where he received the Ph.D. in 1955. His dissertation topic, the American Loyalists, continued to interest him for the rest of his life.

From 1951 until 1957, he was a senior archivist at the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. He also served as an editor of Pennsylvania History, to which he contributed several articles and numerous book reviews. He found his true calling in 1957 when he joined the Dickinson College history department. Until his retirement 16 years later in 1973, Henry was a standout: versatile, witty, prodigiously well informed.

After a sabbatical year spent at Mansfield College, Oxford, in 1965–66, Henry Young concentrated his teaching primarily on medieval and modern European history, especially English history, and continued his research and publication on colonial and revolutionary Pennsylvania. For 20 years, he also taught a course called simply "the history seminar," an innovative approach to the teaching of historiography and research methods that, while demanding, was enormously popular. A number of his students in the seminar went on, with Henry's warm encouragement, to graduate work and careers in history. Over 30 years later, the core of the Dickinson history major remains a course based closely on Henry's conception.

His major research project, unfortunately never completed, was a biographical dictionary of American Loyalist officers in the British army, for which he spent many summers combing archives and repositories in the British Isles, the United States, and Canada. Henry deposited all of his materials gathered for the project with the Clemens Library of the University of Michigan, where it is heavily used by scholars. He remained an active scholar after his retirement, concentrating on local history as well as several extensive genealogical studies. He remained in touch with his students and colleagues—humane, engaged, encouraging—to the end of his life.

Clarke Garrett
Dickinson College

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